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Spying On Science

Author: Paul Maddrell
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199267502
Size: 42.37 MB
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The years 1945-61 saw the greatest transformation in weaponry that has ever taken place, as atomic and thermonuclear bombs, intercontinental ballistic missiles and chemical and biological weapons were developed by the superpowers. It was also a distinct era in Western intelligence collection. These were the years of the Germans. Mass interrogation in West Germany and spying in East Germany represented the most important source of intelligence on Soviet war-related science, weapons development and military capability until 1956 and a key one until 1961. This intelligence fuelled the arms race and influenced Western scientific research, weapons development, and intelligence collection. Using intelligence and policy documents held in British and US archives and records of the Ministry of State Security (MfS) of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), this book is the most penetrating study of the scientific intelligence-gathering and subversive operations of the British, US, and West German intelligence services in the period to date. East Germany's scientific potential was contained by inducing leading scientists and engineers to defect to the West, and Paul Maddrell shows that the US Government's policy of 'containment' was more aggressive than has hitherto been accepted. He also demonstrates that the Western secret services' espionage in the GDR was very successful, even though the MfS and KGB achieved triumphs against them. George Blake twice did appalling damage the MI6's spy networks. The book reveals the identity of the most distinguished scientist to spy for the CIA as yet uncovered.

The Image Of The Enemy

Author: Paul Maddrell
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626162409
Size: 35.12 MB
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Intelligence agencies spend huge sums of money to collect and analyze vast quantities of national security data for their political leaders. How well is this intelligence analyzed, how often is it acted on by policymakers, and does it have a positive or negative effect on decision making? Drawing on declassified documents, interviews with intelligence veterans and policymakers, and other sources, The Image of the Enemy breaks new ground as it examines how seven countries analyzed and used intelligence to shape their understanding of their main adversary. The cases in the book include the Soviet Union's analysis of the United States (and vice versa), East Germany's analysis of West Germany (and vice versa), British intelligence in the early years of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, Israeli intelligence about the Palestinians, Pakistani intelligence on India, and US intelligence about Islamist terrorists. These rivalries provide rich case studies for scholars and offer today’s analysts and policymakers the opportunity to closely evaluate past successes and failures in intelligence analysis and the best ways to give information support to policymakers. Using these lessons from the past, they can move forward to improve analysis of current adversaries and future threats.

East German Foreign Intelligence

Author: Kristie Macrakis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135214506
Size: 22.84 MB
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This edited book examines the East German foreign intelligence service (Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung, or HVA) as a historical problem, covering politics, scientific-technical and military intelligence and counterintelligence. The contributors broaden the conventional view of East German foreign intelligence as driven by the inter-German conflict to include its targeting of the United States, northern European and Scandinavian countries, highlighting areas that have previously received scant attention, like scientific-technical and military intelligence. The CIA’s underestimation of the HVA was a major intelligence failure. As a result, East German intelligence served as a stealth weapon against the US, West German and NATO targets, acquiring the lion’s share of critical Warsaw Pact intelligence gathered during the Cold War. This book explores how though all of the CIA’s East German sources were double agents controlled by the Ministry of State Security, the CIA was still able to declare victory in the Cold War. Themes and topics that run through the volume include the espionage wars; the HVA's relationship with the Russian KGB; successes and failures of the BND (West German Federal Intelligence Service) in East Germany; the CIA and the HVA; the HVA in countries outside of West Germany; disinformation and the role and importance of intelligence gathering in East Germany. This book will be of much interest to students of East Germany, Intelligence Studies, Cold War History and German politics in general. Kristie Macrakis is Professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. Thomas Wegener Friis is an Assistant Professor at the University of Southern Denmark’s Centre for Cold War Studies. Helmut Müller-Enbergs is currently a Visiting Professor at the University of Southern Denmark and holds a tenured senior staff position at the German Federal Commission for the STASI Archives in Berlin.

Driving The Soviets Up The Wall

Author: Hope M. Harrison
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400840724
Size: 25.52 MB
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The Berlin Wall was the symbol of the Cold War. For the first time, this path-breaking book tells the behind-the-scenes story of the communists' decision to build the Wall in 1961. Hope Harrison's use of archival sources from the former East German and Soviet regimes is unrivalled, and from these sources she builds a highly original and provocative argument: the East Germans pushed the reluctant Soviets into building the Berlin Wall. This fascinating work portrays the different approaches favored by the East Germans and the Soviets to stop the exodus of refugees to West Germany. In the wake of Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviets refused the East German request to close their border to West Berlin. The Kremlin rulers told the hard-line East German leaders to solve their refugee problem not by closing the border, but by alleviating their domestic and foreign problems. The book describes how, over the next seven years, the East German regime managed to resist Soviet pressures for liberalization and instead pressured the Soviets into allowing them to build the Berlin Wall. Driving the Soviets Up the Wall forces us to view this critical juncture in the Cold War in a different light. Harrison's work makes us rethink the nature of relations between countries of the Soviet bloc even at the height of the Cold War, while also contributing to ongoing debates over the capacity of weaker states to influence their stronger allies.

Britain S War Machine

Author: David Edgerton
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199911509
Size: 74.58 MB
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The familiar image of the British in the Second World War is that of the plucky underdog taking on German might. David Edgerton's bold, compelling new history shows the conflict in a new light, with Britain as a very wealthy country, formidable in arms, ruthless in pursuit of its interests, and in command of a global production system. Rather than belittled by a Nazi behemoth, Britain arguably had the world's most advanced mechanized forces. It had not only a great empire, but allies large and small. Edgerton shows that Britain fought on many fronts and its many home fronts kept it exceptionally well supplied with weapons, food and oil, allowing it to mobilize to an extraordinary extent. It created and deployed a vast empire of machines, from the humble tramp steamer to the battleship, from the rifle to the tank, made in colossal factories the world over. Scientists and engineers invented new weapons, encouraged by a government and prime minister enthusiastic about the latest technologies. The British, indeed Churchillian, vision of war and modernity was challenged by repeated defeat at the hands of less well-equipped enemies. Yet the end result was a vindication of this vision. Like the United States, a powerful Britain won a cheap victory, while others paid a great price. Putting resources, machines and experts at the heart of a global rather than merely imperial story, Britain's War Machine demolishes timeworn myths about wartime Britain and gives us a groundbreaking and often unsettling picture of a great power in action.

Defence Intelligence And The Cold War

Author: Huw Dylan
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199657025
Size: 61.12 MB
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We have seen the publication of several authoritative and popular histories of British intelligence over the past few years. Written by journalists and academics, these have tapped into a public fascination with the world of secrets and spies and revealed many aspects of Britain's secret past. Three of Britain's key intelligence agencies, MI5, SIS, and GCHQ have been written about in both an official and unofficial capacity, and a lengthy study of the senioranalysis body, the Joint Intelligence Committee, is currently being written. Defence Intelligence and the Cold War both complements and adds to this body of work by examining a hitherto under-studiedorganisation, the Joint Intelligence Bureau. It studies this organisation and the largely unknown world of military and economic intelligence after 1945, and how this intelligence influenced British policies throughout the 1950s into the 1960s. During this period Britain faced a threat unlike any previously encountered, nuclear war, and the Bureau was central to British intelligence in this context. It supplied intelligence on the Soviet Strategic threat, for nuclear targeting, and economicwar. In short, just like SIS, MI5, and GCHQ it was a vital cog in the machinery.

Constructing Socialism At The Grass Roots

Author: C. Ross
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403919720
Size: 44.76 MB
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In the two decades following the defeat of the Third Reich, East Germany was transformed from a war-ravaged occupation zone into an apparent model of Soviet style socialism. Based on extensive archival research, this book explores the building of socialism in East Germany not from the standard perspective of the party and state authorities. It also examines the effect this had at the grassroots level, where patterns of popular opinion, social and cultural continuities from the pre-communist past and the divided loyalties of local functionaries played a crucial role in shaping the face of real existing socialism.

Seduced By Secrets

Author: Kristie Macrakis
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139471112
Size: 63.92 MB
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More fascinating than fiction, Seduced by Secrets takes the reader inside the real world of one of the most effective and feared spy agencies in history. The book reveals the secret technical methods and sources of the Stasi (East German Ministry for State Security) as it stole secrets from abroad and developed gadgets at home. Seduced by Secrets draws on secret files from the Stasi archives to demonstrate that the Stasi overestimated the power of secrets to solve problems and created an insular spy culture more intent on securing its power than protecting national security. It recreates the Stasi's secret world of technology through biographies of agents, defectors, and officers and by visualizing James Bond-like techniques and gadgets. In this highly original book, Kristie Macrakis adds a new dimension to our understanding of the Stasi by bringing the topic into the realm of espionage history and exiting the political domain.

Lamaze

Author: Paula A. Michaels
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199738645
Size: 37.35 MB
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Advocated as the oldest, most natural method of childbirth, Lamaze is a practice involving breathing techniques that help a woman work through contractions (psychoprophylaxis). It has been omnipresent in American culture since the 1970s, advocated by the medical community and mothers alike. While it would seem that it emerged from the back-to-the-earth culture of the 1960s and 1970s, Paula Michaels in this book reveals a shocking history: the Lamaze method was actually invented in the Cold War Soviet Union. Michaels discovers that a French obstetrician, Fernand Lamaze, saw the technique being used in Russia in the 1950s and brought it back to his maternity ward in Paris. In order to make the method more appealing to Americans, early U.S. advocates hid its Soviet origins and were able to spread it as a grassroots movement. This work involving multiple languages and archives in a range of nations promises to be eye-opening for scholars, the medical community, and general readers alike. In setting the practice of Lamaze into its context, it will shed light on the history of medicine, the history of feminism, and Cold War history.