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The Law And Practice Of Documentary Letters Of Credit

Author: Peter Ellinger
Publisher: Hart Pub Limited
ISBN: 9781841136738
Size: 47.61 MB
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Letters of credit have retained their role as an instrumentality for the financing of foreign trade. An understanding of the law and practice in point is imperative for lawyers advising business people and bank clients, as well as for the banking and trading communities. The book examines the topic on the basis of the common law system, primarily UK law, and adopts an approach that is analytical and not merely descriptive. Letter of credit transactions are, by their nature, international and most nations have adopted the Uniform Customs and Practices ("UCP") originally promulgated by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in 1933 and updated from time to time. Today, the UCP constitutes a code of internationally accepted rules governing letter of credit transactions. The authors have therefore selectively incorporated some comparative discussion, for instance, of the position in the USA and Europe. The book will be an essential work of reference for commercial lawyers in all the major financial centres of Europe, America and Asia.

International Lawyer S Deskbook

Author: Lucinda A. Low
Publisher: American Bar Association
ISBN: 9781590311448
Size: 77.76 MB
Format: PDF
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Areference tool for lawyers facing international legal problems outside their own areas of expertise.

Standby Letters Of Credit In International Trade

Author: Ramandeep Kaur Chhina
ISBN: 9789041145604
Size: 44.13 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This thesis puts forward two principal arguments. First, it argues that commercial letters of credit and standby letters of credit should not be treated on an equal footing. They are, and should be, treated as two separate undertakings with respect to the application of the fraud exception. Secondly, the thesis argues that there should be a 'wider' fraud exception for standby letters of credit; however, the need is to explore how wide that fraud exception should be. To support the arguments of this thesis, the study examines the application of the fraud exception in four major jurisdictions: the US, England, Canada and Australia. Out of these four jurisdictions, two - the US and Canada - have been expressly applying the wider fraud test to standby letters of credit and the other two have traditionally applied the more stringent fraud test to standby credits. The research will compare and critically examine these four jurisdictions' approaches to their different tests of the fraud rule to standby letters of credit, and argue that the fraud rule for standby letters of credit should neither be too narrow ('fraud in documents') nor should it be too wide (fraud in the inducement or unconscionable conduct or bad faith). It is argued that standby letters of credit are more abstract than commercial letters of credit; therefore, protecting the principle of the autonomy of these independent undertakings is of paramount importance. The study argues that even the wider fraud exception (the 'fraud in the transaction' defence) should be given a narrow meaning: in order to protect the independence of standby credits, it should be confined to cases in which the beneficiary had 'no bona fide belief in the validity of its claim. The thesis clearly shows that the wider 'fraud as no bona fide claim' is an appropriate fraud defence for standby letters of credit whereas for commercial letters of credit the fraud exception should be narrowly confined to 'fraud in documents', which is arguably an appropriate test for these undertakings.

International Trade Law

Author: Indira Carr
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134846185
Size: 40.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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International Trade Law offers a clear overview of the complexities of an international sale transaction through informed analysis of case law, legislation, and international conventions and rules. Fully updated with changes to the law and new directions in legal debate, this new edition considers: Standard trade terms including INCOTERMS 2010, the Convention on International Sales of Goods 1980 and the UNIDROIT Principles for International Commercial Contracts E-Commerce issues, including electronic bills of lading Insurance and payment mechanisms, such as letters of credit and the UCP 600 International transportation of cargo, including the Rotterdam Rules Dispute resolution (including jurisdiction, applicable law, arbitration and mediation), with particular reference to the relevant EU regulations and the developing case-law thereon Corruption and anti-corruption conventions, including the UK Bribery Act 2010 and developments relating to deferred prosecution agreements In addition to clarifying a range of topics through tables and diagrams, the book directs readers to relevant further reading and online resources throughout, offering students an accessible resource to this often challenging area of the law.

Bank Guarantees In International Trade

Author: Roeland F. Bertrams
ISBN: 9789041122575
Size: 46.99 MB
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For decades, this remarkable book now in its updated fourth edition has served practitioners in international trade and banking law as a thorough codification of the law and practice of bank guarantees. The new edition has been thoroughly revised, updated, and amended in the light of new developments in the law and changing patterns in practice. Bertrams uses case law, arbitral decisions, and legal writing from five European jurisdictions The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, and England to build an analysis of how the practical applications of bank guarantees have established a pattern of law. The new edition takes into account all legal and arbitral decisions and relevant legal writing through 2012 from these countries, as well from other European countries and the United States. Written from a transnational perspective, Bank Guarantees in International Trade can be used in both civil and common law jurisdictions and it has been cited as an authoritative source of case law in several jurisdictions from each system. With reference throughout to the effect and significance of the Uniform Rules for Demand Guarantees (URDG) of the International Chamber of Commerce, International Standby Practices (ISP), and the UNCITRAL Convention on Independent Guarantees and Stand-by Letters of Credit, the author continuously elucidates the way guarantees function in actual practice and the numerous practical aspects and issues to which they give rise. The analysis covers the following subjects and much else: types of guarantee (tender, performance, maintenance, repayment, retention); payment mechanisms (first demand, third-party documents, arbitral or court decision); risks and negotiations, drafting and clauses; bank guarantees as a financial service, the bank s perspective; direct and indirect guarantees, counter-guarantees; formation, enforceability of expiry dates, assignment and transfer; demand for payment and the rule of strict compliance; fraud and restraining orders; applicable law and jurisdiction; reference to URDG 2010 revision and ISP98 throughout the text. In addition to his thorough coverage of law and legal writing, the author has drawn on intensive contacts with the banking community, construction firms, export credit insurance companies, and local lawyers. His insight into the daily life of the world of independent (first demand) guarantees and the practices, difficulties, and peculiarities in a great number of countries and regions, including the Middle East and North Africa, cannot be matched in any other source. Bank guarantees can present major difficulties, and this book is the lawyer s best guide in any situation likely to arise. As a comprehensive study of the legal and practical aspects of bank guarantees and standby letters of credit, it offers practitioners in international trade law the most complete analysis of banking law in the field. In its wealth of practical detail, it is unlikely to be surpassed."

The Handbook Of International Trade And Finance

Author: Anders Grath
Publisher: Kogan Page Publishers
ISBN: 0749463988
Size: 26.50 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Designed for use by anyone involved in international sales, finance, shipping and administration, The Handbook of International Trade and Finance provides a full explanation of the key areas of international trade - including risk management, international payments and currency management. It is an essential reference source that will help to reduce risks and improve cashflow, identify the most competitive finance alternatives, structure the best payment terms, and minimize finance and transaction costs. Coverage includes: trade risks and risk assessment; methods of payment; currency risk; export credit insurance; trade finance; and terms of payment. Designed for all businesses, regardless of size and business sector, the book also describes the negotiating process from the perspectives of both the buyer and the seller - providing valuable insight into the complete financing process.

The Law Of International Trade Finance

Author: Norbert Horn
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Size: 14.31 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book covers the developments in the past ten years of trade & economic cooperation between the EEC & China. It gives a good account of the legal instruments which regulate the EEC-China trade & economic relations. Besides, this book covers not only the EEC commercial policy towards China, but the domestic Chinese laws & regulations on foreign investments as well.

International Trade And Business Law Review

Author: Gabriel Moens
Publisher: Cavendish Publishing
ISBN: 1843145162
Size: 13.56 MB
Format: PDF
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From Frankenstein to futuristic feminist utopias, Decoding Gender in Science Fiction examines the ways science fiction writers have incorporated, explored, and revised conventional notions of sexual difference. Attebery traces a fascinating history of men's and women's writing that covertly or overtly investigates conceptions of gender, suggesting new perspectives on the genre.

The Law Of Letters Of Credit And Bank Guarantees

Author: Agasha Mugasha
Publisher: Federation Press
ISBN: 9781862872202
Size: 43.73 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The aim of this book is to present the Australian law of letters of credit and bank guarantees. It inexorably presents overseas literature as well because the subject is by nature international and comparative, and Australian courts readily cite overseas literature, particularly from the United States, England and Canada. Hence the book focuses on the available Australian literature and utilizes some limited overseas authorities which make Australian law whole and the book more understandable. - From the Preface