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Statistical Approaches To Measurement Invariance

Author: Roger E. Millsap
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113676111X
Size: 37.30 MB
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This book reviews the statistical procedures used to detect measurement bias. Measurement bias is examined from a general latent variable perspective so as to accommodate different forms of testing in a variety of contexts including cognitive or clinical variables, attitudes, personality dimensions, or emotional states. Measurement models that underlie psychometric practice are described, including their strengths and limitations. Practical strategies and examples for dealing with bias detection are provided throughout. The book begins with an introduction to the general topic, followed by a review of the measurement models used in psychometric theory. Emphasis is placed on latent variable models, with introductions to classical test theory, factor analysis, and item response theory, and the controversies associated with each, being provided. Measurement invariance and bias in the context of multiple populations is defined in chapter 3 followed by chapter 4 that describes the common factor model for continuous measures in multiple populations and its use in the investigation of factorial invariance. Identification problems in confirmatory factor analysis are examined along with estimation and fit evaluation and an example using WAIS-R data. The factor analysis model for discrete measures in multiple populations with an emphasis on the specification, identification, estimation, and fit evaluation issues is addressed in the next chapter. An MMPI item data example is provided. Chapter 6 reviews both dichotomous and polytomous item response scales emphasizing estimation methods and model fit evaluation. The use of models in item response theory in evaluating invariance across multiple populations is then described, including an example that uses data from a large-scale achievement test. Chapter 8 examines item bias evaluation methods that use observed scores to match individuals and provides an example that applies item response theory to data introduced earlier in the book. The book concludes with the implications of measurement bias for the use of tests in prediction in educational or employment settings. A valuable supplement for advanced courses on psychometrics, testing, measurement, assessment, latent variable modeling, and/or quantitative methods taught in departments of psychology and education, researchers faced with considering bias in measurement will also value this book.

Statistical Approaches To Measurement Invariance

Author: Roger E. Millsap
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136761128
Size: 44.15 MB
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View: 7328
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This book reviews the statistical procedures used to detect measurement bias. Measurement bias is examined from a general latent variable perspective so as to accommodate different forms of testing in a variety of contexts including cognitive or clinical variables, attitudes, personality dimensions, or emotional states. Measurement models that underlie psychometric practice are described, including their strengths and limitations. Practical strategies and examples for dealing with bias detection are provided throughout.

Statistical Approaches To Measurement Invariance

Author: Roger Ellis Millsap
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9781848728196
Size: 72.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 2444
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This book reviews the statistical procedures used to detect measurement bias. Measurement bias is examined from a general latent variable perspective so as to accommodate different forms of testing in a variety of contexts including cognitive or clinical variables, attitudes, personality dimensions, or emotional states. Measurement models that underlie psychometric practice are described, including their strengths and limitations. Practical strategies and examples for dealing with bias detection are provided throughout. The book begins with an introduction to the general topic, followed by a review of the measurement models used in psychometric theory. Emphasis is placed on latent variable models, with introductions to classical test theory, factor analysis, and item response theory, and the controversies associated with each, being provided. Measurement invariance and bias in the context of multiple populations is defined in chapter 3 followed by chapter 4 that describes the common factor model for continuous measures in multiple populations and its use in the investigation of factorial invariance. Identification problems in confirmatory factor analysis are examined along with estimation and fit evaluation and an example using WAIS-R data. The factor analysis model for discrete measures in multiple populations with an emphasis on the specification, identification, estimation, and fit evaluation issues is addressed in the next chapter. An MMPI item data example is provided. Chapter 6 reviews both dichotomous and polytomous item response scales emphasizing estimation methods and model fit evaluation. The use of models in item response theory in evaluating invariance across multiple populations is then described, including an example that uses data from a large-scale achievement test. Chapter 8 examines item bias evaluation methods that use observed scores to match individuals and provides an example that applies item response theory to data introduced earlier in the book. The book concludes with the implications of measurement bias for the use of tests in prediction in educational or employment settings. A valuable supplement for advanced courses on psychometrics, testing, measurement, assessment, latent variable modeling, and/or quantitative methods taught in departments of psychology and education, researchers faced with considering bias in measurement will also value this book.

Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling

Author: Todd D. Little
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1462510272
Size: 73.33 MB
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Featuring actual datasets as illustrative examples, this book reveals numerous ways to apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to any repeated-measures study. Initial chapters lay the groundwork for modeling a longitudinal change process, from measurement, design, and specification issues to model evaluation and interpretation. Covering both big-picture ideas and technical "how-to-do-it" details, the author deftly walks through when and how to use longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, longitudinal panel models (including the multiple-group case), multilevel models, growth curve models, and complex factor models, as well as models for mediation and moderation. User-friendly features include equation boxes that clearly explain the elements in every equation, end-of-chapter glossaries, and annotated suggestions for further reading. The companion website (www.guilford.com/little-materials) provides datasets for all of the examples--which include studies of bullying, adolescent students' emotions, and healthy aging--with syntax and output from LISREL, Mplus, and R (lavaan).

Principles And Practice Of Structural Equation Modeling Fourth Edition

Author: Rex B. Kline
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462523005
Size: 66.58 MB
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Emphasizing concepts and rationale over mathematical minutiae, this is the most widely used, complete, and accessible structural equation modeling (SEM) text. Continuing the tradition of using real data examples from a variety of disciplines, the significantly revised fourth edition incorporates recent developments such as Pearl's graphing theory and the structural causal model (SCM), measurement invariance, and more. Readers gain a comprehensive understanding of all phases of SEM, from data collection and screening to the interpretation and reporting of the results. Learning is enhanced by exercises with answers, rules to remember, and topic boxes. The companion website supplies data, syntax, and output for the book's examples--now including files for Amos, EQS, LISREL, Mplus, Stata, and R (lavaan). New to This Edition *Extensively revised to cover important new topics: Pearl's graphing theory and the SCM, causal inference frameworks, conditional process modeling, path models for longitudinal data, item response theory, and more. *Chapters on best practices in all stages of SEM, measurement invariance in confirmatory factor analysis, and significance testing issues and bootstrapping. *Expanded coverage of psychometrics. *Additional computer tools: online files for all detailed examples, previously provided in EQS, LISREL, and Mplus, are now also given in Amos, Stata, and R (lavaan). *Reorganized to cover the specification, identification, and analysis of observed variable models separately from latent variable models. Pedagogical Features *Exercises with answers, plus end-of-chapter annotated lists of further reading. *Real examples of troublesome data, demonstrating how to handle typical problems in analyses. *Topic boxes on specialized issues, such as causes of nonpositive definite correlations. *Boxed rules to remember. *Website promoting a learn-by-doing approach, including syntax and data files for six widely used SEM computer tools.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis For Applied Research Second Edition

Author: Timothy A. Brown
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 146251779X
Size: 79.24 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This accessible book has established itself as the go-to resource on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for its emphasis on practical and conceptual aspects rather than mathematics or formulas. Detailed, worked-through examples drawn from psychology, management, and sociology studies illustrate the procedures, pitfalls, and extensions of CFA methodology. The text shows how to formulate, program, and interpret CFA models using popular latent variable software packages (LISREL, Mplus, EQS, SAS/CALIS); understand the similarities ...

Handbook Of Educational Measurement And Psychometrics Using R

Author: Christopher D. Desjardins
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351650300
Size: 58.12 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides a broad overview of methods in educational and psychological measurement focusing on applications using R. It includes the key introductory topics and extends to recent research developments, such as multidimensional item response theory models. The focus is on the practical implementation of the methods, with lots of real data examples and R code integrated throughout. The book will be supplemented by an R package with all code and data available for replication. The book could be used as a supplementary text for the computing component of a course on measurement in either department.

Invariant Measurement

Author: George Engelhard
Publisher: Routledge Academic
ISBN: 9780415871259
Size: 64.50 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This introductory text describes the principles of invariant measurement, how invariant measurement can be achieved with Rasch models, and how to use invariant measurement to solve measurement problems in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Rasch models are used throughout but a comparison of Rasch models to other item response theory (IRT) models is also provided. Written with students in mind, the manuscript was class tested to help maximize accessibility. Chapters open with an introduction and close with a summary and discussion. Numerous examples and exercises demonstrate the main issues addressed in each chapter. Key terms are defined when first introduced and in an end-of-text glossary. All of the book’s analyses were conducted with the Facets program. The data sets used in the book, sample syntax files for running the Facets program, Excel files for creating item and person response functions, links to related websites, and other material are available at www.GeorgeEngelhard.com. Highlights include: A strong philosophical and methodological approach to measurement in the human sciences Demonstrations of how measurement problems can be addressed using invariant measurement Practical illustrations of how to create and evaluate scales using invariant measurement A history of measurement based on test-score and scaling traditions Previously unpublished work in analyzing rating data, the detection and measurement of rater errors, and the evaluation of rater accuracy A review of estimation methods, model-data fit, indices used to evaluate the quality of rater-mediated assessments, rater error and bias, and rater accuracy. Intended as a supplementary text for graduate or advanced undergraduate courses on measurement or test theory, item response theory, scaling theory, psychometrics, advanced measurement techniques, research methods, or evaluation research taught in education, psychology, and the social and health sciences, the book also appeals to practitioners and researchers in these fields who develop or use scales and instruments. Only a basic mathematical level is required including a basic course in statistic.

Measurement Invariance

Author: Rens Van De Schoot
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288919650X
Size: 31.29 MB
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Multi-item surveys are frequently used to study scores on latent factors, like human values, attitudes and behavior. Such studies often include a comparison, between specific groups of individuals, either at one or multiple points in time. If such latent factor means are to be meaningfully compared, the measurement structures including the latent factor and their survey items should be stable across groups and/or over time, that is ‘invariant’. Recent developments in statistics have provided new analytical tools for assessing measurement invariance (MI). The aim of this special issue is to provide a forum for a discussion of MI, covering some crucial ‘themes’: (1) ways to assess and deal with measurement non-invariance; (2) Bayesian and IRT methods employing the concept of approximate measurement invariance; and (3) new or adjusted approaches for testing MI to fit increasingly complex statistical models and specific characteristics of survey data. The special issue started with a kick-off meeting where all potential contributors shared ideas on potential papers. This expert workshop was organized at Utrecht University in The Netherlands and was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO-VENI-451-11-008). After the kick-off meeting the authors submitted their papers, all of which were reviewed by experts in the field. The papers in the eBook are listed in alphabetical order, but in the editorial the papers are introduced thematically. Although it is impossible to cover all areas of relevant research in the field of MI, papers in this eBook provide insight on important aspects of measurement invariance. We hope that the discussions included in this special issue will stimulate further research on MI and facilitate further discussions to support the understanding of the role of MI in multi-item surveys.

Cross Cultural Analysis

Author: Eldad Davidov
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134991290
Size: 32.21 MB
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Intended to bridge the gap between the latest methodological developments and cross-cultural research, this interdisciplinary resource presents the latest strategies for analyzing cross-cultural data. Techniques are demonstrated through the use of applications that employ cross-national data sets such as the latest European Social Survey. With an emphasis on the generalized latent variable approach, internationally prominent researchers from a variety of fields explain how the methods work, how to apply them, and how they relate to other methods presented in the book. Syntax and graphical and verbal explanations of the techniques are included. Online resources, available at www.routledge.com/9781138690271, include some of the data sets and syntax commands used in the book. Applications from the behavioral and social sciences that use real data-sets demonstrate: The use of samples from 17 countries to validate the resistance to change scale across these nations How to test the cross-national invariance properties of social trust The interplay between social structure, religiosity, values, and social attitudes A comparison of anti-immigrant attitudes and patterns of religious orientations across European countries. The second edition includes six new chapters and two revised ones presenting exciting developments in the literature of cross-cultural analysis including topics such as approximate measurement invariance, alignment optimization, sensitivity analyses, a mixed-methods approach to test for measurement invariance, and a multilevel structural equation modeling approach to explain noninvariance.? This book is intended for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in cross-cultural research. Because the applications span a variety of disciplines, the book will appeal to researchers and students in: psychology, political science, sociology, education, marketing and economics, geography, criminology, psychometrics, epidemiology, and public health, as well as those interested in methodology. It is also appropriate for an advanced methods course in cross-cultural analysis.