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Statistical Models In Epidemiology The Environment And Clinical Trials

Author: M.Elizabeth Halloran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461212847
Size: 61.25 MB
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This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications STATISTICAL MODELS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY, THE ENVIRONMENT,AND CLINICAL TRIALS is a combined proceedings on "Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials" and "Statistics and Epidemiology: Environment and Health. " This volume is the third series based on the proceedings of a very successful 1997 IMA Summer Program on "Statistics in the Health Sciences. " I would like to thank the organizers: M. Elizabeth Halloran of Emory University (Biostatistics) and Donald A. Berry of Duke University (Insti tute of Statistics and Decision Sciences and Cancer Center Biostatistics) for their excellent work as organizers of the meeting and for editing the proceedings. I am grateful to Seymour Geisser of University of Minnesota (Statistics), Patricia Grambsch, University of Minnesota (Biostatistics); Joel Greenhouse, Carnegie Mellon University (Statistics); Nicholas Lange, Harvard Medical School (Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital); Barry Margolin, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (Biostatistics); Sandy Weisberg, University of Minnesota (Statistics); Scott Zeger, Johns Hop kins University (Biostatistics); and Marvin Zelen, Harvard School of Public Health (Biostatistics) for organizing the six weeks summer program. I also take this opportunity to thank the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Army Research Office (ARO), whose financial support made the workshop possible. Willard Miller, Jr.

Applications Of Dynamical Systems In Biology And Medicine

Author: Trachette Jackson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493927825
Size: 22.49 MB
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This volume highlights problems from a range of biological and medical applications that can be interpreted as questions about system behavior or control. Topics include drug resistance in cancer and malaria, biological fluid dynamics, auto-regulation in the kidney, anti-coagulation therapy, evolutionary diversification and photo-transduction. Mathematical techniques used to describe and investigate these biological and medical problems include ordinary, partial and stochastic differentiation equations, hybrid discrete-continuous approaches, as well as 2 and 3D numerical simulation.

Epidemiologic Methods For The Study Of Infectious Diseases

Author: James C. Thomas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195121120
Size: 66.27 MB
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This is the first comprehensive text on the methodological issues in epidemiologic research on infectious diseases. It will be an invaluable resource both to students of epidemiology and to established researchers. The authors address such questions as: What needs to be considered when enrolling participants in a study of sexually transmitted diseases? What are common sources of measurement error in population-based studies of respiratory infections? What are some sources of existing data for epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases? Answers to these and many other related questions can be found in this well-organized, comprehensive and authoritative volume - the first to thoroughly address the methodologic issues in conducting epidimiologic research on infectious diseases. The book will be an ideal complement to texts on general epidemiology and infectious disease. An introductory section will make it accessible to a wide variety of disciplines by providing an overview of topics that are foundational to understanding infectious disease epidemiology, such as the immunology of infections, the biology of infectious diseases, and concepts of causation, transmission, and dynamics. The rest of the book is structured around sections on data sources and measurement; methods by transmission type; outbreak investigation and evaluation research; and special topics such as HIV/AIDS research, infections in the elderly, and research collaborations in developing countries.

Statistical Models In Epidemiology

Author: David Clayton
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199671184
Size: 58.54 MB
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This self-contained account of the statistical basis of epidemiology has been written for those with a basic training in biology. No previous knowledge of the subject is assumed and mathematics is deliberately kept at a manageable level. Based on a highly successful course, this book explains the essential statistics for all epidemiologists.

Clinical Research Informatics

Author: Rachel Richesson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1848824483
Size: 36.99 MB
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The purpose of the book is to provide an overview of clinical research (types), activities, and areas where informatics and IT could fit into various activities and business practices. This book will introduce and apply informatics concepts only as they have particular relevance to clinical research settings.

Emerging Zoonoses Eco Epidemiology Involved Mechanisms And Public Health Implications

Author: Rubén Bueno-Marí
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889196186
Size: 43.35 MB
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Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

Secondary Analysis Of Electronic Health Records

Author: MIT Critical Data
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319437429
Size: 43.35 MB
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This book trains the next generation of scientists representing different disciplines to leverage the data generated during routine patient care. It formulates a more complete lexicon of evidence-based recommendations and support shared, ethical decision making by doctors with their patients. Diagnostic and therapeutic technologies continue to evolve rapidly, and both individual practitioners and clinical teams face increasingly complex ethical decisions. Unfortunately, the current state of medical knowledge does not provide the guidance to make the majority of clinical decisions on the basis of evidence. The present research infrastructure is inefficient and frequently produces unreliable results that cannot be replicated. Even randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the traditional gold standards of the research reliability hierarchy, are not without limitations. They can be costly, labor intensive, and slow, and can return results that are seldom generalizable to every patient population. Furthermore, many pertinent but unresolved clinical and medical systems issues do not seem to have attracted the interest of the research enterprise, which has come to focus instead on cellular and molecular investigations and single-agent (e.g., a drug or device) effects. For clinicians, the end result is a bit of a “data desert” when it comes to making decisions. The new research infrastructure proposed in this book will help the medical profession to make ethically sound and well informed decisions for their patients.

Fundamentals Of Clinical Research

Author: Antonella Bacchieri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8847004926
Size: 25.13 MB
Format: PDF
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Here is a new book on methods and issues in clinical research. Its objectives can be summarized in three points. 1. Integrate medical and statistical components of clinical research. 2. Do justice to the operational and practical requirements of clinical research. 3. Give space to the ethical implications of methodological issues in clinical research. The book ends with a brief description of the drug development process and the phases of clinical development.

Building A Better Delivery System

Author: Committee on Engineering and the Health Care System
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030909643X
Size: 37.89 MB
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In a joint effort between the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine, this books attempts to bridge the knowledge/awareness divide separating health care professionals from their potential partners in systems engineering and related disciplines. The goal of this partnership is to transform the U.S. health care sector from an underperforming conglomerate of independent entities (individual practitioners, small group practices, clinics, hospitals, pharmacies, community health centers et. al.) into a high performance "system" in which every participating unit recognizes its dependence and influence on every other unit. By providing both a framework and action plan for a systems approach to health care delivery based on a partnership between engineers and health care professionals, Building a Better Delivery System describes opportunities and challenges to harness the power of systems-engineering tools, information technologies and complementary knowledge in social sciences, cognitive sciences and business/management to advance the U.S. health care system.