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Statistical Strategies For Small Sample Research

Author: Rick H. Hoyle
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9780761908869
Size: 56.85 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides encouragement and strategies for researchers who routinely address research questions using data from small samples. Chapters cover such topics as: using multiple imputation software with small sets; computing and combining effect sizes; bootstrap hypothesis testing; application of latent variable modeling; time-series data from small numbers of individuals; and sample size, reliability and tests of statistical mediation.

Data Analysis With Small Samples And Non Normal Data

Author: Carl F. Siebert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199391491
Size: 41.76 MB
Format: PDF
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In social sciences, education, and public health research, researchers often conduct small pilot studies (or may have planned for a larger sample but lost too many cases due to attrition or missingness), leaving them with a smaller sample than they expected and thus less power for their statistical analyses. Similarly, researchers may find that their data are not normally distributed -- especially in clinical samples -- or that the data may not meet other assumptions required for parametric analyses. In these situations, nonparametric analytic strategies can be especially useful, though they are likely unfamiliar. A clearly written reference book, Data Analysis with Small Samples and Non-Normal Data offers step-by-step instructions for each analytic technique in these situations. Researchers can easily find what they need, matching their situation to the case-based scenarios that illustrate the many uses of nonparametric strategies. Unlike most statistics books, this text is written in straightforward language (thereby making it accessible for nonstatisticians) while providing useful information for those already familiar with nonparametric tests. Screenshots of the software and output allow readers to follow along with each step of an analysis. Assumptions for each of the tests, typical situations in which to use each test, and descriptions of how to explain the findings in both statistical and everyday language are all included for each nonparametric strategy. Additionally, a useful companion website provides SPSS syntax for each test, along with the data set used for the scenarios in the book. Researchers can use the data set, following the steps in the book, to practice each technique before using it with their own data. Ultimately, the many helpful features of this book make it an ideal long-term reference for researchers to keep in their personal libraries.

Vertriebswegswahl Junger Innovativer Unternehmen

Author: Thomas Müller
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783834913067
Size: 47.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Thomas Müller leitet auf Basis der Transaktionskostentheorie sowie der Vertriebsmanagement-Literatur ein Forschungsmodell ab, mit dessen Hilfe die Wirkung der Einflussfaktoren auf die Vertriebswegswahl analysiert wird. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen die Erfolgsrelevanz der Vertriebswegswahl und der Autor liefert konkrete Implikationen zur Gestaltung des Vertriebswegs.

Corporate M A

Author: Moritz Kübel
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3834939706
Size: 74.12 MB
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Parallel zur Entwicklung in der Praxis hat M&A seit den 1960er Jahren auch in der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Forschung zunehmend Beachtung erfahren. Wurden Unternehmensakquisitionen und deren wirtschaftliche Auswirkungen zunächst hauptsächlich aus finanzökonomischer Perspektive analysiert, so existieren inzwischen zahlreiche Untersuchungen aus unterschiedlichen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen und Forschungsperspektiven (z.B. Institutionenökonomik, Verhaltensökonomik, Lernforschung und Managementforschung). Insgesamt sind die Forschungsergebnisse zu M&A aber sehr fragmentiert, inkonsistent und lückenhaft. Es besteht nach wie vor großer Bedarf an weiterer empirischer Forschung, um die Erfolgsfaktoren von Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen besser zu identifizieren und relevante Praxisempfehlungen ableiten zu können. Die vorliegende Untersuchung ist fokussiert auf die Unternehmensebene als die relevante Betrachtungsebene und analysiert Charakteristika der akquirierenden Unternehmen. Forschungsziel ist ein theoriegeleiteter und empiriebasierter Beitrag zum wissenschaftlichen Verständnis von Serial Acquirern und zur Verbesserung ihres Leistungsvermögens in der Praxis. ​

Messung Und Steuerung Der Kommunikations Effizienz

Author: Jürgen Schwarz
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658002794
Size: 60.19 MB
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​Der zunehmende Wettbewerbsdruck in allen Branchen zwingt Unternehmen ihre Marketingbudgets nicht nur effektiv sondern auch möglichst effizient einzusetzen. Vor allem im Kommunikationscontrolling wird vermehrt eine systematische Messung und Steuerung der Kommunikations-effizienz gefordert, die transparent und nachvollziehbar ist. Jürgen Schwarz identifiziert eine vielversprechende Methode und überprüft deren Anwendbarkeit zur Messung der Kommunikationseffizienz sowohl theoretisch als auch im Rahmen empirischer Studien. Der Autor liefert Erkenntnisse für die Anwendung der Methode und leitet Handlungsempfehlungen für das Kommunikationscontrolling sowie Implikationen für die Messung der Kommunikationseffizienz ab.

Handbook Of Structural Equation Modeling

Author: Rick H. Hoyle
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462516793
Size: 37.38 MB
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The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, including new and emerging topics in SEM. Each chapter provides conceptually oriented descriptions, fully explicated analyses, and engaging examples that reveal modeling possibilities for use with readers' data. Many of the chapters also include access to data and syntax files at the companion website, allowing readers to try their hands at reproducing the authors' results.

Small Clinical Trials

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309171144
Size: 65.96 MB
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Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

Small Clinical Trials

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309073332
Size: 66.91 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 1743
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Clinical trials are used to elucidate the most appropriate preventive, diagnostic, or treatment options for individuals with a given medical condition. Perhaps the most essential feature of a clinical trial is that it aims to use results based on a limited sample of research participants to see if the intervention is safe and effective or if it is comparable to a comparison treatment. Sample size is a crucial component of any clinical trial. A trial with a small number of research participants is more prone to variability and carries a considerable risk of failing to demonstrate the effectiveness of a given intervention when one really is present. This may occur in phase I (safety and pharmacologic profiles), II (pilot efficacy evaluation), and III (extensive assessment of safety and efficacy) trials. Although phase I and II studies may have smaller sample sizes, they usually have adequate statistical power, which is the committee's definition of a "large" trial. Sometimes a trial with eight participants may have adequate statistical power, statistical power being the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the hypothesis is false. Small Clinical Trials assesses the current methodologies and the appropriate situations for the conduct of clinical trials with small sample sizes. This report assesses the published literature on various strategies such as (1) meta-analysis to combine disparate information from several studies including Bayesian techniques as in the confidence profile method and (2) other alternatives such as assessing therapeutic results in a single treated population (e.g., astronauts) by sequentially measuring whether the intervention is falling above or below a preestablished probability outcome range and meeting predesigned specifications as opposed to incremental improvement.

The Ethics Of Social Research

Author: Joan E. Sieber
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461257190
Size: 50.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Social scientists are unprepared for many of the ethical problems that arise in their research, and for criticisms of their ethics that seem to ignore such cherished scientific values as objectivity and freedom of inquiry. Yet, they possess method ological talent and insight into human nature that can be used to understand and resolve these problems. The contributors to this book demonstrate that criticism of the ethics of social research can stimulate constructive development of meth odology. Both volumes of The Ethics of Social Research were written for and by social scientists to show how ethical dilemmas arise in the day-to-day conduct of social research and how they can be resolved. The topics discussed in this book include ethical problems that arise in experiments and sample surveys; the companion volume deals with the ethical issues involved in fieldwork and in the regulation and publication of research. With candor and humor, many of the contributors describe lessons they have learned about themselves, their methods, and their research participants. Collectively, they illustrate that both humanists and detenninists are likely to encounter ethical dilemmas in their research, albeit different ones, and that a blending of detenninistic and humanistic approaches may be needed to solve these dilemmas. The aim of this book is to assist irwestigators in preparing to meet some of the ethical problems that await the unwary. It offers perspectives, values, and guidelines for anticipating problems and devising solutions.

Principles And Practice Of Research

Author: H. Troidl
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642969429
Size: 63.28 MB
Format: PDF
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emerging on the surgical scene to challenge or For some readers, the title of this book will im thodoxy. Although these innovations are often mediately raise the question, what exactly is greeted with great optimism, a factual basis for meant by surgical research? In the very broadest that enthusiasm is sometimes far from secure sense the term can be taken to include all en and much further work is frequently required to deavors, however elementary or limited in discover whether we are dealing with genuine scope, to advance surgical knowledge. Ideally, advances or not. it refers to well-organized attempts to establish The most exciting and attractive scenario for on a proper scientific basis, i. e. , to place beyond surgical research is unquestionably one that de reasonable doubt, the truth or otherwise of any picts a successful attempt by a researcher to es concepts, old or new, within the ambit of sur gery, and, of course, anaesthesia. tablish the accuracy of some bold innovation for which he himself is responsible. Joseph Lister, The methods used to achieve that end vary demonstrating by clinical trial that wound sup enormously, depending on the issue being in vestigated.