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Strain And Dislocation Gradients From Diffraction

Author: Rozaliya Barabash
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 190897964X
Size: 14.49 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book highlights emerging diffraction studies of strain and dislocation gradients with mesoscale resolution, which is currently a focus of research at laboratories around the world. While ensemble-average diffraction techniques are mature, grain and subgrain level measurements needed to understand real materials are just emerging. In order to understand the diffraction signature of different defects, it is necessary to understand the distortions created by the defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space of the non-ideal crystals. Starting with a review of defect classifications based on their displacement fields, this book then provides connections between different dislocation arrangements, including geometrically necessary and statistically stored dislocations, and other common defects and the corresponding changes in the reciprocal space and diffraction patterns. Subsequent chapters provide an overview of microdiffraction techniques developed during the last decade to extract information about strain and dislocation gradients. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of local crystalline structure, orientation and defect density, because it is inherently non-destructive and penetrating. Contents:Diffraction Analysis of Defects: State of the Art (Rozaliya I Barabash and Gene E Ice)X-ray Laue Diffraction Microscopy in 3D at the Advanced Photon Source (Wenjun Liu and Gene E Ice)High-Energy Transmission Laue (HETL) Micro-Beam Diffraction (Felix Hofmann and Alexander M Korsunsky)XMAS: A Versatile Tool for Analyzing Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction Data (Nobumichi Tamura)Laue Microdiffraction at the ESRF (Odile Robach, Christoph Kirchlechner, Jean-Sébastien Micha, Olivier Ulrich, Xavier Biquard, Olivier Geaymond, Olivier Castelnau, Michel Bornert, Johann Petit, Sophie Berveiller, Olivier Sicardy, Julie Villanova and François Rieutord)3D X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy (Henning Friis Poulsen, Søren Schmidt, Dorte Juul Jensen, Henning Osholm Sørensen, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Ulrik Lund Olsen, Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King, Jonathan Paul Wright and Gavin B M Vaughan)Grain Centre Mapping — 3DXRD Measurements of Average Grain Characteristic (Jette Oddershede, Søren Schmidt, Allan Lyckegaard, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Jonathan Paul Wright and Grethe Winther)Three-Dimensional X-ray Diffraction (3DXRD) Imaging Techniques (Wolfgang Ludwig, Andrew King and Péter Reischig)High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures (Wolfgang Pantleon, Christian Wejdemann, Bo Jakobsen, Henning Friis Poulsen and Ulrich Lienert)Reconstructing 2D and 3D X-ray Orientation Maps from White-Beam Laue (Jonathan Z Tischler)Energy-Variable X-ray Diffraction for Studying Polycrystalline Materials with High Depth Resolution (Emil Zolotoyabko)Microstructure Detail Extraction via EBSD: An Overview (David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Jay Basinger, Timothy Ruggles, Ali Khosravani, Caroline Sorensen and Joshua Kacher)High-Pressure Studies with Microdiffraction (Wenge Yang) Readership: Researchers in X-ray science, materials science, applied physics, and mechanical engineering. Keywords:Diffraction;Microdiffraction;Laue Diffraction;Strain;Dislocations;Geometrically Necessary Dislocations;Dislocation Density;Plastic Deformation;Lattice RotationsKey Features:The book addresses the following three questions: what is the current state-of-the-art in this field; what are the advantages, capabilities and limitations of competing methods; what are the practical tools needed for spatially-resolved diffraction methods

Research Methods In Biomineralization Science

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124166555
Size: 64.33 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in biomineralization science, and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Contains sections on such topics as and includes sections on such topics as determining solution chemistry, structure and nucleation; probing structure and dynamics at surfaces; and interfaces mapping biomineral and morphology and ultrastructure

Flexoelectricity In Solids

Author: Alexander K Tagantsev
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814719331
Size: 39.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This unique compendium is devoted to flexoelectricity — the response of polarization to a strain gradient. The effect is analogous to piezoelectricity which is the response of polarization to strain itself. In contrast to piezoelectricity, which appears only in non-centrosymmetric materials, flexoelectric effect is allowed by symmetry in any materials. It becomes appreciable in nano-scale systems, where large strain gradients arise. The book discusses different nano-scale manifestations of the effect ranging from repulsion of acoustic and optic branches of materials to flexoelectricity in domain walls. It mainly caters for scientists, engineers and students.

Crystals In Glass

Author: E. D. Zanotto
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111855891X
Size: 53.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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A "must-have" for materials engineers, chemists, physicists, and geologists, this is one of the first "coffee-table" books in the field of glass science. Containing over fifty beautiful micrographs, the book reflects 35 years of original research by a highly regarded authority in the field. It contains 50 slides culled from tens of thousands of images on glass crystal nucleation, growth, and crystallization. The images represent glass crystallization mechanisms, including internal, surface, homogeneous, heterogeneous, and eutectic, crystal nucleation and growth.

Scanning Electron Microscope Optics And Spectrometers

Author: Anjam Khursheed
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812836675
Size: 35.55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book contains proposals to redesign the scanning electron microscope, so that it is more compatible with other charged particle beam instrumentation and analytical techniques commonly used in surface science research. It emphasizes the concepts underlying spectrometer designs in the scanning electron microscope, and spectrometers are discussed under one common framework so that their relative strengths and weaknesses can be more readily appreciated. This is done, for the most part, through simulations and derivations carried out by the author himself.The book is aimed at scientists, engineers and graduate students whose research area or study in some way involves the scanning electron microscope and/or charged particle spectrometers. It can be used both as an introduction to these subjects and as a guide to more advanced topics about scanning electron microscope redesign.

In Situ Electron Microscopy At High Resolution

Author: Florian Banhart
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812797335
Size: 44.55 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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In-situ high-resolution electron microscopy is a modern and powerful technique in materials research, physics, and chemistry. In-situ techniques are hardly treated in textbooks of electron microscopy. Thus, there is a need to collect the present knowledge about the techniques and achievements of in-situ electron microscopy in one book. Since high-resolution electron microscopes are available in most modern laboratories of materials science, more and more scientists or students are starting to work on this subject.In this comprehensive volume, the most important techniques and achievements of in-situ high-resolution electron microscopy will be reviewed by renowned experts. Applications in several fields of materials science will also be demonstrated.

Springer Handbook Of Lasers And Optics

Author: Frank Träger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642194095
Size: 50.62 MB
Format: PDF
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This new edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially 4 new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs and Interferometry reflect the changes since the first edition. In addition, major complete updates for the chapters: Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit. Features Contains over 1000 two-color illustrations. Includes over 120 comprehensive tables with properties of optical materials and light sources. Emphasizes physical concepts over extensive mathematical derivations. Chapters with summaries, detailed index Delivers a wealth of up-to-date references.

Compound Semiconductor Bulk Materials And Characterizations

Author: Oda Osamu
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814449199
Size: 80.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is concerned with compound semiconductor bulk materials, and has been written for students, researchers and engineers in material science and device fabrication. It provides the elementary and intermediate knowledge of compound semiconductor bulk materials necessary for entry into this field. The first volume described the physical properties, crystal growth technologies, principles of crystal growth, various defects in crystals, characterization techniques and applications, and reviewed various III-V and II-V compound semiconductor materials. In this second volume, other materials are reviewed, including those that have recently received attention such as GaN, AlN, SiC and ZnO for optical and electronic devices.

Max Phases And Ultra High Temperature Ceramics For Extreme Environments

Author: Low, I. M.
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1466640677
Size: 74.81 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Ceramics are a versatile material, more so than is widely known. They are thermal resistant, poor electrical conductors, insulators against nuclear radiation, and not easily damaged, making ceramics a key component in many industrial processes. MAX Phases and Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics for Extreme Environments investigates a new class of ultra-durable ceramic materials, which exhibit characteristics of both ceramics and metals. Readers will explore recent advances in the manufacturing of ceramic materials that improve their durability and other physical properties, enhancing their overall usability and cost-effectiveness. This book will be of primary use to researchers, academics, and practitioners in chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineering. This book is part of the Research Essentials collection.

Ulsi Front End Technology Covering From The First Semiconductor Paper To Cmos Finfet Technology

Author: Lau Wai Shing
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813222174
Size: 17.56 MB
Format: PDF
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The main focus of this book is ULSI front-end technology. It covers from the early history of semiconductor science & technology from 1874 to state-of-the-art FINFET technology in 2016. Some ULSI back-end technology is also covered, for example, the science and technology of MIM capacitors for analog CMOS has been included in this book. Contents: PrefaceAuthor BiographyIntroduction to the History of SemiconductorsHistory of MOS TechnologyCMOS Switching Speed Characterization and An Overview Regarding How to Speed Up CMOSLow Power CMOS EngineeringAnalog CMOS TechnologyIndex Readership: The book is useful for researchers in semiconductor technology especially practicing engineers. Keywords: Semiconductor;Integrated Circuits;CMOS;High Speed;Low Power;Digital;Analog;Mixed-Signal;Planar Technology;FINFET;MIM CapacitorReview: Key Features: The book is readable for beginnersThe book is useful for semiconductor technology historiansThe book is useful for practicing engineers