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Stratification In Higher Education

Author: Yossi Shavit
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804768146
Size: 35.72 MB
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The mass expansion of higher education is one of the most important social transformations of the second half of the twentieth century. In this book, scholars from 15 countries, representing Western and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Israel, Australia, and the United States, assess the links between this expansion and inequality in the national context. Contrary to most expectations, the authors show that as access to higher education expands, all social classes benefit. Neither greater diversification nor privatization in higher education results in greater inequality. In some cases, especially where the most advantaged already have significant access to higher education, opportunities increase most for persons from disadvantaged origins. Also, during the late twentieth century, opportunities for women increased faster than those for men. Offering a new spin on conventional wisdom, this book shows how all social classes benefit from the expansion of higher education.

Higher Education And Social Inequalities

Author: Richard Waller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315449706
Size: 49.83 MB
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A university education has long been seen as the gateway to upward social mobility for individuals from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and as a way of reproducing social advantage for the better off. With the number of young people from the very highest socio-economic groups entering university in the UK having effectively been at saturation point for several decades, the expansion witnessed in participation rates over the last few decades has largely been achieved by a modest broadening of the base of the undergraduate population in terms of both social class and ethnic diversity. However, a growing body of evidence exists in the continuation of unequal graduate outcomes. This can be seen in terms of employment trajectories in the UK. The issue of just who enjoys access to which university, and the experiences and outcomes of graduates from different institutions remain central to questions of social justice, notably higher education’s contribution to social mobility and to the reproduction of social inequality. This collection of contemporary original writings explores these issues in a range of specific contexts, and through employing a range of theoretical and methodological approaches. The relationship between higher education and social mobility has probably never been under closer scrutiny. This volume will appeal to academics, policy makers, and commentators alike. Higher Education and Social Inequalities is an important contribution to the public and academic debate.

High Participation Systems Of Higher Education

Author: Brendan Cantwell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019256403X
Size: 36.11 MB
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Higher Education has become a central institution of society, building individual knowledge, skills, agency, and relational social networks at unprecedented depth and scale. Within a generation there has been an extraordinary global expansion of Higher Education, in every region in all but the poorest countries, outstripping economic growth and deriving primarily from familial aspirations for betterment. By focusing on the systems and countries that have already achieved near universal participation, High Participation Systems of Higher Education explores this remarkable transformation. The world enrolment ratio, now rising by 10 per cent every decade, is approaching 40 per cent, mostly in degree-granting institutions, including three quarters of young people in North America and Europe. Higher Education systems in the one in three countries that enrol more than 50 per cent are here classified as 'high participation systems'. Part I of the book measures, maps, and explains the growth of participation, and the implications for society and Higher Education itself. Drawing on a wide range of literature and data, the chapters theorize the changes in governance, institutional diversity, and stratification in Higher Education systems, and the subsequent effects in educational and social equity. The theoretical propositions regarding high-participation Higher Education developed in these chapters are then tested in the country case studies in Part II, presenting a comprehensive enquiry into the nature of the emerging 'high participation society'.

Class And Stratification Analysis

Author: Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 178190538X
Size: 36.58 MB
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Emphasizes unsolved issues and developments within class and stratification analysis, discussing both theoretical and methodological innovations and revisions. In this book, comparative analysis has also revealed cross-national differentiation in stratification processes, partly related to welfare state arrangements and national policies.

University Adaptation In Difficult Economic Times

Author: Paola Mattei
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199989419
Size: 32.77 MB
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Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges confronting Europe's universities today. Despite the fact that universities are at the centre of knowledge creation and development, which itself is seen as one of the main engines of economic growth, public funding of higher education in most countries is not increasing or at least not increasing enough in real terms. "Democratisation of higher education" has led to the fact that the higher education budgets per student are relatively low in most European countries compared to Europe's competitors. Despite declarations of intent to increase spending on higher education and research, it is not very likely that public expenditure will grow significantly on average in Europe and therefore be able to keep up with rapidly inflating costs in the years to come. One of the reasons for this is that higher education and research have to compete with other priorities in public budgets (e.g., security, health, etc.). Furthermore, the recent economic downturn has contributed to the decision in many European countries to decrease the levels of investment in higher education and research. Such trends are particularly worrisome for universities across Europe, whose continuing dependence on public funding puts their future sustainability under pressure. New funding schemes and incentives have been discussed and introduced in many European higher education systems, including competitive funding schemes for research under the name of "excellence" policies. Despite the different national institutional configurations in Europe, higher education systems face similar demands of promoting sustainable funding models, maintaining high academic standards, and equality. Thus, financial sustainability is not an end in itself; it aims to ensure that the public university's goals are reached by guaranteeing that the institution produces sufficient income to enable it to invest in high quality education and produce equitable outcomes. For these reasons, this book analyses funding reforms from a multidimensional approach.

Improving Learning Environments

Author: Richard Arum
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804781680
Size: 37.63 MB
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Improving Learning Environments provides the first systematic comparative cross-national study of school disciplinary climates. In this volume, leading international social science researchers explore nine national case studies to identify the institutional determinants of variation in school discipline, the possible links between school environments and student achievement, as well as the implications of these findings for understanding social inequality. As the book demonstrates, a better understanding of school discipline is essential to the formation of effective educational policies. Ultimately, to improve a school's ability to contribute to youth socialization and student internalization of positive social norms and values, any changes in school discipline must not only be responsive to behavior problems but should also work to enhance the legitimacy and moral authority of school actors.

Ethnicity And Social Divisions

Author: Karin Halldén
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443809233
Size: 43.72 MB
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The anthology “Ethnicity and Social Divisions: Contemporary Research in Sociology” is a collection of studies presented at the annual Aage Sørensen Memorial Conferences in 2006 and 2007. The volume reflects a number of important tendencies in contemporary social research: the increasing interest in questions that concern ethnicity and immigration on the one hand, the remaining centrality of social stratification and class analysis on the other hand, and the intersection between these fields. Eight young sociologists, all PhD Candidates at the universities of Harvard, Oxford or Stockholm at the time they wrote their contributions, participate in this volume. Representing a new generation of social scientists, they have conducted empirical research on social inequality related to class and ethnicity from different perspectives.

Education And Social Inequality In The Global Culture

Author: Joseph Zajda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402069277
Size: 17.48 MB
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This book critically examines the overall interplay between globalisation, social inequality and education. It explores conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches applicable in the research covering the State, globalisation, social stratification and education. The book, constructed against this pervasive anti-dialogical backdrop, aims to widen, deepen, and in some cases open, discourse related to globalisation, and new dimensions of social inequality in the global culture.

Higher Education Meritocracy And Inequality In China

Author: Ye Liu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811015880
Size: 76.69 MB
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This book investigates the changing opportunities in higher education for different social groups during China’s transition from the socialist regime to a market economy. The first part of the book provides a historical and comparative analysis of the development of the idea of meritocracy, since its early origins in China, and in more recent western thought. The second part then explores higher education reforms in China, the part played by supposedly meritocratic forms of selection, and the implications of these for social mobility. Based on original empirical data, Ye Liu sheds light on the socio-economic, gender and geographical inequalities behind the meritocratic façade of the Gaokao (高考). Liu argues that the Chinese philosophical belief in education-based meritocracy had a modern makeover in the Gaokao, and that this ideology induces working-class and rural students to believe in upward social mobility through higher education. When the Gaokao broke the promise of status improvement for rural students, they turned to the Chinese Communist Party and sought political connections by actively applying for its membership. This book reveals a bleak picture of visible and invisible inequality in terms of access to and participation in higher education in contemporary China. Written in an accessible style, it offers a valuable resource for researchers and non-specialist readers alike.

Globalization Uncertainty And Youth In Society

Author: Hans-Peter Blossfeld
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134248059
Size: 43.22 MB
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Examining how youths in fourteen industrialized societies make the transition to adulthood in an era of globalization and rising uncertainty, this collection of essays investigates the impact that institutions working with social groups of youths have upon those youths' abilities to make adult decisions determining their life courses. Covering both Europe and North America, the book includes case studies, and contains country-specific contributions on conservative, social-democratic, post-socialist, liberal and familistic welfare regimes, as well as data from the GLOBALIFE project. Filling the gap in the market on the micro effects of globalization on individuals, and taking an empirical approach to the topic, this impressive volume brings the individual and nation-specific institutions back into the discussion on globalization.