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Stratification In Higher Education

Author: Yossi Shavit
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804768146
Size: 80.83 MB
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The mass expansion of higher education is one of the most important social transformations of the second half of the twentieth century. In this book, scholars from 15 countries, representing Western and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Israel, Australia, and the United States, assess the links between this expansion and inequality in the national context. Contrary to most expectations, the authors show that as access to higher education expands, all social classes benefit. Neither greater diversification nor privatization in higher education results in greater inequality. In some cases, especially where the most advantaged already have significant access to higher education, opportunities increase most for persons from disadvantaged origins. Also, during the late twentieth century, opportunities for women increased faster than those for men. Offering a new spin on conventional wisdom, this book shows how all social classes benefit from the expansion of higher education.

Class And Stratification Analysis

Author: Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 178190538X
Size: 49.47 MB
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Emphasizes unsolved issues and developments within class and stratification analysis, discussing both theoretical and methodological innovations and revisions. In this book, comparative analysis has also revealed cross-national differentiation in stratification processes, partly related to welfare state arrangements and national policies.

Education Occupation And Social Origin

Author: Fabrizio Bernardi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1785360450
Size: 14.37 MB
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

Higher Education And Social Inequalities

Author: Richard Waller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315449706
Size: 63.39 MB
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A university education has long been seen as the gateway to upward social mobility for individuals from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and as a way of reproducing social advantage for the better off. With the number of young people from the very highest socio-economic groups entering university in the UK having effectively been at saturation point for several decades, the expansion witnessed in participation rates over the last few decades has largely been achieved by a modest broadening of the base of the undergraduate population in terms of both social class and ethnic diversity. However, a growing body of evidence exists in the continuation of unequal graduate outcomes. This can be seen in terms of employment trajectories in the UK. The issue of just who enjoys access to which university, and the experiences and outcomes of graduates from different institutions remain central to questions of social justice, notably higher education’s contribution to social mobility and to the reproduction of social inequality. This collection of contemporary original writings explores these issues in a range of specific contexts, and through employing a range of theoretical and methodological approaches. The relationship between higher education and social mobility has probably never been under closer scrutiny. This volume will appeal to academics, policy makers, and commentators alike. Higher Education and Social Inequalities is an important contribution to the public and academic debate.

International Guide To Student Achievement

Author: John Hattie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136962042
Size: 34.52 MB
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The International Guide to Student Achievement brings together and critically examines the major influences shaping student achievement today. There are many, often competing, claims about how to enhance student achievement, raising the questions of "What works?" and "What works best?" World-renowned bestselling authors, John Hattie and Eric M. Anderman have invited an international group of scholars to write brief, empirically-supported articles that examine predictors of academic achievement across a variety of topics and domains. Rather than telling people what to do in their schools and classrooms, this guide simply provides the first-ever compendium of research that summarizes what is known about the major influences shaping students’ academic achievement around the world. Readers can apply this knowledge base to their own school and classroom settings. The 150+ entries serve as intellectual building blocks to creatively mix into new or existing educational arrangements and aim for quick, easy reference. Chapter authors follow a common format that allows readers to more seamlessly compare and contrast information across entries, guiding readers to apply this knowledge to their own classrooms, their curriculums and teaching strategies, and their teacher training programs.

Higher Education And Social Stratification

Author: Torsten Husén
Publisher: United Nations Educational
Size: 30.74 MB
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The social stratification process is analyzed from a theoretical point of view, with assumptions tested with empirical evidence from the International Institute for Educational Planning project in developing countries or with information obtained through the researcher's prior studies on industrialized countries. The significant, and often negative, consequences due to the problem of social stratification are discussed in relation to the educational and occupational careers of educated youth. The subject is introduced by noting linkage between education and employment, egalitarian policies in education, and a historical perspective. Egalitarian philosophies in education are considered along with aspects of the equality problem relevant to developing countries. The role of formal education as a social stratifier is explored. A comparative perspective on education and social stratification in developing countries as well as differences between developed and developing countries with regard to social stratification are offered. Information is included on university graduates in developing countries focused on social background and social destination. Among the conclusions are: social stratification in all societies is enhanced by competition, selectivity and a meritocratic reward system; because institutions of higher education in developing countries serve subsistence economies with a limited modern sector, their post-primary enrollment patterns have no historical parallel in the developed economies; and home background in third-world countries tends to have less impact on access, survival, and outcomes of secondary and higher education than in industrialized countries. Tables and references are provided, and 50 references are appended. (SM)

Higher Education And The Common Good

Author: Simon Marginson
Publisher: Melbourne Univ. Publishing
ISBN: 0522871100
Size: 80.92 MB
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In the last half century higher education has moved from the fringe to the centre of society and accumulated a long list of social functions. In the English-speaking world, Europe and much of East Asia more than two thirds of all school students enter tertiary education. Bulging at the seams, universities are fountains of new knowledge, engines of prosperity and innovation, drivers of regional growth, skilled migration and global competitiveness, and makers of equality of opportunity. Yet they can do little to stop growing income inequality, and in the English-speaking countries, government rhetoric and policy economics have narrowed their purpose to that of sorting careers for the middle class, partly to justify the rise in tuition fees. Higher education systems have become more competitive and stratified, with value more concentrated at the top, and the collective public benefits of universities are underplayed and underfunded. In short, governments expect both too much and too little of higher education, and its contribution to the common good is being eroded. Yet universities are much much more than factories for graduate earnings. Higher Education and the Common Good argues that this sector has a key role in rebuilding social solidarity and mobility in fractured societies.

Models Of Secondary Education And Social Inequality

Author: Hans-Peter Blossfeld
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1785367269
Size: 67.15 MB
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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

The Shape Of Social Inequality

Author: David Bills
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459356
Size: 54.80 MB
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This volume brings together former students, colleagues, and others influenced by the sociological scholarship of Archibald O. Haller to celebrate Haller's many contributions to theory and research on social stratification and mobility. All of the chapters respond to Haller's programmatic agenda for stratification research: "A full program aimed at understanding stratification requires: first, that we know what stratification structures consist of and how they may vary; second, that we identify the individual and collective consequences of the different states and rates of change of such structures; and third, seeing that some degree of stratification seems to be present everywhere, that we identify the factors that make stratification structures change." The contributors to this Festschrift address such topics as the changing nature of stratification regimes, the enduring significance of class analysis, the stratifying dimensions of race, ethnicity, and gender, and the interplay between educational systems and labor market outcomes. Many of the chapters adopt an explicitly cross-societal comparative perspective on processes and consequences of social stratification. The volume offers both conceptually and empirically important new analyses of the shape of social stratification.

Gender Education And Employment

Author: Hans-Peter Blossfeld
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1784715034
Size: 52.65 MB
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For much of the twentieth century, women lagged considerably behind men in their educational attainment. However, in recent decades, young women have become an important source of human capital for labor markets in modern societies, as well as potential competitors to the male workforce. This book asks whether or not women have been able to convert their educational success into gains on the labor market. The expert contributors address the topic on a comparative level with discussions centred on gendered school-to-work transitions and gendered labor market outcomes. Thereafter they analyze the country-specific implications of the gender redress from a wide range of countries including the USA, Russia and Australia. This enlightening book will appeal to graduates and postgraduates studying social policy, education, the labor market, inequality and gender. It will also be of interest to experts in the fields of sociology, education, political science and economics and those interested in educational research.