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Structure Analysis By Small Angle X Ray And Neutron Scattering

Author: L.A. Feigin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475766246
Size: 40.26 MB
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Small-angle scattering of X rays and neutrons is a widely used diffraction method for studying the structure of matter. This method of elastic scattering is used in various branches of science and technology, includ ing condensed matter physics, molecular biology and biophysics, polymer science, and metallurgy. Many small-angle scattering studies are of value for pure science and practical applications. It is well known that the most general and informative method for investigating the spatial structure of matter is based on wave-diffraction phenomena. In diffraction experiments a primary beam of radiation influences a studied object, and the scattering pattern is analyzed. In principle, this analysis allows one to obtain information on the structure of a substance with a spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of the radiation. Diffraction methods are used for studying matter on all scales, from elementary particles to macro-objects. The use of X rays, neutrons, and electron beams, with wavelengths of about 1 A, permits the study of the condensed state of matter, solids and liquids, down to atomic resolution. Determination of the atomic structure of crystals, i.e., the arrangement of atoms in a unit cell, is an important example of this line of investigation.

Small Angle X Ray And Neutron Scattering From Solutions Of Biological Macromolecules

Author: Dmitri I. Svergun
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Size: 64.65 MB
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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

Small Angle X Ray And Neutron Scattering From Solutions Of Biological Macromolecules

Author: Dmitri I. Svergun
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191507032
Size: 52.42 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Small-angle scattering of X-rays (SAXS) and neutrons (SANS) is an established method for the structural characterization of biological objects in a broad size range from individual macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, lipids) to large macromolecular complexes. SAXS/SANS is complementary to the high resolution methods of X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance, allowing for hybrid modeling and also accounting for available biophysical and biochemical data. Quantitative characterization of flexible macromolecular systems and mixtures has recently become possible. SAXS/SANS measurements can be easily performed in different conditions by adding ligands or binding partners, and by changing physical and/or chemical characteristics of the solvent to provide information on the structural responses. The technique provides kinetic information about processes like folding and assembly and also allows one to analyze macromolecular interactions. The major factors promoting the increasingly active use of SAXS/SANS are modern high brilliance X-ray and neutron sources, novel data analysis methods, and automation of the experiment, data processing and interpretation. In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

Biological Small Angle Scattering Techniques Strategies And Tips

Author: Barnali Chaudhuri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 981106038X
Size: 13.59 MB
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This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications. The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS. The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for exploring the diversity of solution SAS methods and applications. Chapter 3 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.

Characterization Of Porous Solids Ii

Author: KK Unger
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080887487
Size: 20.19 MB
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The Second IUPAC Symposium on the Characterization of Porous Solids (COPS-II) provided the opportunity for detailed discussion and appraisal of the most important techniques currently used for the characterization of porous materials, especially those of technological importance. The 82 selected papers and reviews contained in this volume are mainly concerned with the theoretical and experimental aspects of adsorption, fluid penetration, small-angle scattering and spectroscopic methods with their application in the study of adsorbents, catalysts, constructional materials, etc. Particular attention is given to the characterization of carbons, oxides, zeolites, clays, cement and polymers. The wide range of materials and techniques described in this book provide a useful and comprehensive reference source for academic and industrial scientists and technologists.

Soft Matter Characterization

Author: Redouane Borsali
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140204464X
Size: 22.42 MB
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This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.

Elementary Scattering Theory

Author: D.S. Sivia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199228671
Size: 58.76 MB
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This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.

Neutron And X Ray Spectroscopy

Author: Françoise Hippert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402033370
Size: 80.83 MB
Format: PDF
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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books