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Structures Of Scientific Collaboration

Author: Wesley Shrum
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262195593
Size: 55.25 MB
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Collaboration among organizations is rapidly becoming common in scientific researchas globalization and new communication technologies make it possible for researchers from differentlocations and institutions to work together on common projects. These scientific and technologicalcollaborations are part of a general trend toward more fluid, flexible, and temporary organizationalarrangements, but they have received very limited scholarly attention. Structures of ScientificCollaboration is the first study to examine multi-organizational collaboration systematically,drawing on a database of 53 collaborations documented for the Center for History of Physics of theAmerican Institute of Physics. By integrating quantitative sociological analyses with detailed casehistories, Shrum, Genuth, and Chompalov pioneer a new and truly interdisciplinary method for thestudy of science and technology. Scientists undertake multi-organizational collaborations becauseindividual institutions often lack sufficient resources--including the latest technology--to achievea given research objective. The authors find that collaborative research depends on both technologyand bureaucracy; scientists claim to abhor bureaucracy, but most collaborations use itconstructively to achieve their goals. The book analyzes the structural elements of collaboration(among them formation, size and duration, organization, technological practices, and participantexperiences) and the relationships among them. The authors find that trust, though viewed aspositive, is not necessarily associated with successful projects; indeed, the formal structures ofbureaucracy reduce the need for high levels of trust--and make possible the independence so valuedby participating scientists.Wesley Shrum is Professor of Sociology at Louisiana State University andlongtime Secretary of the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S). Joel Genuth, a former ProjectHistorian at the American Institute of Physics, teaches mathematics to incarcerated juveniles at theHampshire Educational Collaborative in Massachusetts. Ivan Chompalov is Assistant Professor ofSociology at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.

Beyond Imported Magic

Author: Eden Medina
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262027453
Size: 47.86 MB
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The essays in this volume study the creation, adaptation, and use of science and technology in Latin America. They challenge the view that scientific ideas and technology travel unchanged from the global North to the global South -- the view of technology as "imported magic." They describe not only alternate pathways for innovation, invention, and discovery but also how ideas and technologies circulate in Latin American contexts and transnationally. The contributors' explorations of these issues, and their examination of specific Latin American experiences with science and technology, offer a broader, more nuanced understanding of how science, technology, politics, and power interact in the past and present.The essays in this book use methods from history and the social sciences to investigate forms of local creation and use of technologies; the circulation of ideas, people, and artifacts in local and global networks; and hybrid technologies and forms of knowledge production. They address such topics as the work of female forensic geneticists in Colombia; the pioneering Argentinean use of fingerprinting technology in the late nineteenth century; the design, use, and meaning of the XO Laptops created and distributed by the One Laptop per Child Program; and the development of nuclear energy in Argentina, Mexico, and Chile.ContributorsPedro Ignacio Alonso, Morgan G. Ames, Javiera Barandiarán, João Biehl, Anita Say Chan, Amy Cox Hall, Henrique Cukierman, Ana Delgado, Rafael Dias, Adriana Díaz del Castillo H., Mariano Fressoli, Jonathan Hagood, Christina Holmes, Matthieu Hubert, Noela Invernizzi, Michael Lemon, Ivan da Costa Marques, Gisela Mateos, Eden Medina, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, Hugo Palmarola, Tania Pérez-Bustos, Julia Rodriguez, Israel Rodríguez-Giralt, Edna Suárez Díaz, Hernán Thomas, Manuel Tironi, Dominique Vinck

Low Power To The People

Author: Christina Dunbar-Hester
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028123
Size: 71.68 MB
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The United States ushered in a new era of small-scale broadcasting in 2000 when it began issuing low-power FM (LPFM) licenses for noncommercial radio stations around the country. Over the next decade, several hundred of these newly created low-wattage stations took to the airwaves. In Low Power to the People, Christina Dunbar-Hester describes the practices of an activist organization focused on LPFM during this era. Despite its origins as a pirate broadcasting collective, the group eventually shifted toward building and expanding regulatory access to new, licensed stations. These radio activists consciously cast radio as an alternative to digital utopianism, promoting an understanding of electronic media that emphasizes the local community rather than a global audience of Internet users.Dunbar-Hester focuses on how these radio activists impute emancipatory politics to the "old" medium of radio technology by promoting the idea that "microradio" broadcasting holds the potential to empower ordinary people at the local community level. The group's methods combine political advocacy with a rare commitment to hands-on technical work with radio hardware, although the activists' hands-on, inclusive ethos was hampered by persistent issues of race, class, and gender. Dunbar-Hester's study of activism around an "old" medium offers broader lessons about how political beliefs are expressed through engagement with specific technologies. It also offers insight into contemporary issues in media policy that is particularly timely as the FCC issues a new round of LPFM licenses.

Complex Systems Concurrent Engineering

Author: Geilson Loureiro
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846289769
Size: 55.11 MB
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This volume features the proceedings of the 14th ISPE Conference on Concurrent Engineering, held in São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil, on the 16th – 20th of July 2007. It highlights the application of concurrent engineering to the development of complex systems.

New Dictionary Of Scientific Biography

Author: Noretta Koertge
Publisher: Scribner
ISBN:
Size: 67.68 MB
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Also available online as part of the Gale Virtual Reference Library under the title Complete dictionary of scientific biography.

Parallel Processing And Applied Mathematics

Author: Roman Wyrzykowski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540341412
Size: 43.50 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, PPAM 2005, held in Pozna'n, Poland, in September 2005.The 135 papers presented were carefully selected and improved during two rounds of reviewing and revision. The papers are organized in topical sections on parallel and distributed architectures, paralel and distributed non-numerical algorithms, performance analysis, prediction and optimization, grid programming, tools and environments for clusters and grids, applications of parallel/distributed/grid computing, evolutionary computing with applications, parallel data mining, parallel numerics, and mathematical and computing methods. Contained as well are papers of the following workshops the 2nd grid application and middleware workshop (GAMW 2005), the 2nd grid resource management workshop (GRMW 2005), workshop on large scale computations on grids, workshop on scheduling for parallel computing, workshop on language-based parallel programming models, workshop on dependability of the distributed systems, workshop on HPC linear algebra libraries for computers with multi-level memories, and workshop on parallel bio-computing.

Innovations And Advanced Techniques In Systems Computing Sciences And Software Engineering

Author: Khaled Elleithy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402087357
Size: 35.13 MB
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Innovations and Advanced Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering includes a set of rigorously reviewed world-class manuscripts addressing and detailing state-of-the-art research projects in the areas of Computer Science, Software Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Systems Engineering and Sciences. Innovations and Advanced Techniques in Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering includes selected papers form the conference proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Computing Sciences and Software Engineering (SCSS 2007) which was part of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information and Systems Sciences and Engineering (CISSE 2007).