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Studies On Veterinary Medicine

Author: Lester Mandelker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781617790713
Size: 78.61 MB
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This compendium of research material on the role of oxidative stress in animal disease and morbidity examines both the general and the specific. Sourced from scientists, veterinarians, and members of the medical community from around the world, it includes chapters on our wider understanding of the corrosive function of free radicals in cell biology as well as focusing on the interplay between oxidative stress and metabolism in a variety of animal species including dogs, ruminants and birds. Since biogerontologist Denham Harman first posited that free radicals arising from the metabolic activity of oxygen play a central role in aging and disease, a mass of evidence has accumulated linking oxidative stress and biological degradation. We now understand that living in an aerobic environment inevitably leads to the production of free radicals that go on to attack biological membranes and lipoproteins via oxidation in a process called lipid peroxidation. Reacting with carbon-based molecules such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, these free radicals cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. The purpose of Studies on Veterinary Medicine is to inform clinicians, students and others of the plethora of consequences that free radical damage (ROS) has on various cells, tissues, and organs, as well as in different species of animals. The chapters also analyze the effects of oxidative stress on aging and various morbidities such as diabetes, cognitive dysfunction and heart disease. Contributors variously present their interpretation of the role played by oxidative damage in disease and assess the benefits of antioxidant therapies.

Studies On Men S Health And Fertility

Author: Ashok Agarwal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1617797758
Size: 24.27 MB
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Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility provides a comprehensive series of up-to-the-minute reviews addressing the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of reproductive pathologies in the male. This volume represents by far the most detailed, authoritative review of the field that has been produced to date. The text encompasses the basic science of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mammalian spermatozoa, the way in which these highly reactive molecules are processed by the germ line and the physiological significance of this redox activity in the generation of a functional gamete. The factors responsible for perturbing the delicate balance between physiological redox signaling on the one hand and oxidative stress on the other are also extensively reviewed and some of the first clues concerning the underlying mechanisms (age, heat, infection, cryostorage, aberrant lipid metabolism), clearly identified. From a clinical perspective there are chapters setting out the methods we should be using to diagnose oxidative stress in the male germ line, a clinical perspective on the aetiology of this condition and detailed considerations of the most suitable means of ameliorating such stress from a therapeutic point of view. Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility is intended to provide clinicians and scientists with a snap shot of the current status of this exciting, rapidly moving field. The book will be of value to clinicians interested in strategies for the management of oxidative stress in their infertility patients and scientists wishing to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning the generation of ROS by these cells and its pathophysiological significance. It was not so long ago that the ability of spermatozoa to generate ROS was a hotly disputed topic. With the publication of this book such doubts can finally be laid to rest. There is now no doubt that these cells actively generate ROS, that oxidative stress is a major contributor to defects in male reproductive health and that the successful clinical management of this condition depends on developing a deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this quest, Studies on Men’s Health and Fertility will be seen as a clear and important milestone.

Studies On Periodontal Disease

Author: Daisuke Ekuni
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461495571
Size: 28.99 MB
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The chapters of Studies on Periodontal Disease comprise four parts. Part 1 provides basic sciences from the general to the particular. The findings of cell culture and animal models supply the mechanism between periodontal disease and oxidative stress. In part 2, human clinical studies are mainly addressed. The effects of periodontal therapy on circulating oxidative stress are also discussed. The relationships between periodontal disease and systemic diseases are examined in part 3. The involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation are discussed through in vivo and in vitro study results. Part 4 discusses future strategies, including the effects of antioxidants and nutrition on periodontal disease. This thorough examination of the relationship between oxidative stress and periodontal disease is essential reading for researchers in oxidative stress and periodontal clinicians, alike.

Studies On Cardiovascular Disorders

Author: Heinrich Sauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781607616009
Size: 33.82 MB
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This collection of articles on oxidative stress in clinical practice surveys essential current research in what is a rapidly evolving field. As well as giving the reader a mechanistic overview of how oxidative stress affects cardiovascular disease, it analyzes the potential of a number of therapeutic options that target these pathways. Understanding the complexity of the cellular redox system could lead to the development of better targeted interventions that facilitate patient recovery. Even as large-scale clinical trials of so-called ‘simple’ antioxidant approaches such as vitamins C and E show that significant benefits for cardiovascular patients remain elusive, Studies on Cardiovascular Disorders demonstrates that such approaches are too simplistic. Beginning with a summary of redox signaling models that could induce the progression of redox-associated cardiovascular disorders, the volume moves on to examine redox-mediated protein modification under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It provides an outline of the signaling pathways in cardiovascular development during embryogenesis, and what impact these might have in the differentiation process of resident cardiac and blastocyst derived stem cells. Further chapters detail our current knowledge of the influence the sensory nervous system exerts on the cardiovascular system, and the paradoxical role of mitochondria-derived ROS in cardiac protection. In all, almost 30 contributions cover issues as diverse as the antioxidant properties of statins in the heart and the oxidative risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A range of medical practitioners will find the contents of Studies on Cardiovascular Disorders provides illuminating insight into the Janus-faced role of ROS in the cardiovascular system.

Studies On Retinal And Choroidal Disorders

Author: Robert D. Stratton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1617796050
Size: 34.25 MB
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Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders examines the role that oxidative and nitrosative stress plays in the complex physiology and pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. Both the basic science researcher and the clinical practitioner can use this book as a guide to the current understanding of retinal and choroidal cellular mechanisms involved in aging and disease. Beginning with a review of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathoetiology of AMD and a review of the complement system in the retina, the book then takes a detailed look at oxidative stress in lipid metabolism and oxidized lipoproteins in the retina. It examines the anti-apoptotic activity of α-crystallins in the presence of glutathione, oxidative stress in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, the role of iron in retinal disease, the mechanisms of pathological VEGF expression, NAPDH oxidase mechanisms, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor in oxidative stress in the retina. A detailed look at the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mouse model of AMD follows. Then a detailed examination of the systemic changes in AMD is followed by a discussion of cerium oxide nanoparticle reduction of oxidative stress. Two chapters discuss progenitor cells in the cause and treatment of retinal diseases including AMD and diabetic retinopathy. Natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases are exhaustively presented, followed by a chapter on serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists in oxidative stress of the retina. The current anti-VEGF treatment strategies of neovascular AMD are then given. The volume continues with a detailed look at nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in retinal vascular disease, an explanation of an in vivo technique of studying the effect of lipid hydroperoxides on circulating leucocytes in the retina, an excellent review of oxidative stress in retinopathy of prematurity, and a look at VEGF induced oxidative stress in the retinal ganglion cell. The book ends with a detail examination of the role of carotenoids in retinal health and disease. These 31 chapters summarize what is known about oxidative stress in retinal and choroidal disorders. All those involved with degenerative diseases of the eye will find Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders to be illuminating and comprehensive.

Aging And Age Related Disorders

Author: Stephen Bondy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781607616023
Size: 38.48 MB
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Features that characterize the aging process include the gradual accumulation of cell damage after prolonged exposure to oxidative and inflammatory events over a lifetime. In addition to the accretion of lesions, the intrinsic levels of pro-oxidant and aberrant immune responses are elevated with age. These adverse events are often further enhanced by the chronic and slow progressing diseases that characterize the senescent brain and cardiovascular system. The incidence of some disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular diseases are sufficiently prevalent in the extreme elderly that these disorders can arguably be considered "normal". Aging and Aging-Related Disorders examines the interface between normal and pathological aging, and illustrates how this border can sometimes be diffuse. It explores and illustrates the processes underlying the means by which aging becomes increasingly associated with inappropriate levels of free radical activity and how this can serve as a platform for the progression of age-related diseases. The book provides chapters that examine the interactive relationship between systems in the body that can enhance or sometimes even limit cellular longevity. In addition, specific redox mechanisms in cells are discussed. Another important aspect for aging discussed here is the close relationship between the systems of the body and exposure to environmental influences of oxidative stress that can affect both cellular senescence and a cell’s nuclear DNA. What may be even more interesting to note is that these external stressors are not simply confined to illnesses usually associated with aging, but can be evident in maturing and young individuals. A broad range of internationally recognized experts have contributed to this book. Their aim is to successfully highlight emerging knowledge and therapy for the understanding of the basis and development of aging–related disorders.

Studies On Experimental Models

Author: Samar Basu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781607619567
Size: 13.56 MB
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There is a widespread consensus that use of antioxidants as a therapeutic approach may counteract free radical mediated pathologies. However, the role of antioxidants in normal physiology and redox signaling is still in its infancy. Since oxidative stress is related to various diseases and pathologies, scientists are eager to study the disease in humans, but it is not always ethical to study all the aspects of the disease in humans. Thus, it becomes mandatory to study the disease process and the mechanisms behind it through experimental models which generally involve animals, in vitro/cell culture studies, primates and even humans to a certain extent. Studies on Experimental Models contains data on the experimental models or review of such models of oxidative stress in various diseases. It is structured into six sections, which are as follows: diabetes, cardiovascular, neurology, ocular diseases, toxicology/environmental and in vitro/tissue culture. Each section presents a sketch of models in humans, animals and in vitro methods. Taken together, they comprise a valuable reference for basic and clinical scientists, one aimed at contributing to the advancement of oxidative stress research using appropriate animal models.

Enhancing Animal Welfare And Farmer Income Through Strategic Animal Feeding

Author: Harinder P. S. Makkar
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN:
Size: 75.22 MB
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" ... At the Expert Consultation held at FAO headquarters in Rome in September 2011, participants called for a series of case studies to document existing practices that enhance animal welfare as well as farmers' incomes; currently, such studies are few and far between. This document presents a number of such studies and it is hoped that the information they contain will encourage researchers and agencies working in the area of animal welfare to initiate studies to capture the impact of any intervention on farmers' incomes - an area that has been neglected to date. It is also envisaged that these studies could pave the way for developing guidelines and policy options to promote sustainable animal feeding that enhances animal welfare, animal productivity, animal product quality and profitability."--Preface.

Approaches To Controlling Preventing And Eliminating H5n1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza In Endemic Countries

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
ISBN: 9789251068373
Size: 14.47 MB
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"At its peak in 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by viruses of the H5N1 subtype was reported in over 60 countries. Since then, most affected countries have eliminated the disease. However, in Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, Egypt, India, Indonesia and Viet Nam, the virus has remained entrenched and these countries continue to be endemic for the disease. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in association with national authorities, has developed a framework, based on experiences gained so far in endemically infected countries and covering activities that, if adopted, will help to move each country along the path towards virus elimination. Each framework comprises a mix of measures aimed at outbreak control and responses; gathering and analyzing information from surveillance, disease investigations and other epidemiological studies and market chain studies; and disease prevention and risk reduction. As the virus is unlikely to be eliminated from poultry for some time the risk of emergence of a human pandemic strain from an avian virus will persist and will need management. The extended time frame until the virus can be eliminated provides opportunities for research into new and innovative measures for the control and prevention of H5N1 HPAI and other influenza viruses. This includes better vaccines that can be delivered easily to poultry production sectors; methods of developing virus resistance in poultry through genetic manipulation and selection; and universal influenza vaccines for humans that protect against different influenza virus subtypes, thus minimizing the threat posed by the virus to human health"--Page 4 of cover.

Oxidative Stress And Free Radical Damage In Neurology

Author: Natan Gadoth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781603275149
Size: 73.57 MB
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The role of free radicals and oxidative stress in neurological disorders has only recently been recognized, leaving clinical neurologists to seek in vain for information on the subject even in major textbooks. What published information there is may consist of brief reminders of the possible association of superoxidase dismutase with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and nitrous oxide with migraine. With luck they may also find information on the purported role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury. Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Damage in Neurology sets the record straight, focusing on clinical and research issues regarding the interplay of free radicals and the human nervous system. Crucially, the chapters cover numerous antioxidants and their possible therapeutic role in neurological disorders. Key illnesses such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s are analyzed, and chapters also examine more general issues such as the link between free radicals and inflammation of the central nervous system. Clinicians and laboratory researchers alike will find that this book augments their understanding not only of the widespread involvement of free radicals in the central nervous system but also of some uncertainties surrounding whether free radical damage in neurology plays a primary or secondary role.