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Surfaces And Interfaces Of Liquid Crystals

Author: Theo Rasing
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662101572
Size: 18.90 MB
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This book describes the state of the art of our understanding of liquid-crystal interfaces on a molecular level. The interactions of liquid crystal molecules with a surface play an essential role in the operation of liquid crystal displays (LCD's) and other LC devices that are based on the controllable anchoring of LC molecules on polymer coated surfaces. This book addresses the microscopic interaction between a macromolecule (liquid crystal, polymer) and a wall, using state of the art surface and interface-sensitive experimental techniques, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Linear and Nonlinear Optical Microscopy and (Dynamic) Light Scattering (DLS). These experimental techniques were complemented with computer simulations and supra molecular chemistry methods to develop controllable polymeric surfaces.

The Surface Physics Of Liquid Crystals

Author: A. A. Sonin
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9782881249952
Size: 58.29 MB
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In addition to the physical aspects of the problems of interaction of liquid crystals with substrates (e.g. anchoring energy, contact angle, surface order parameter, van der Waals forces) production problems are also covered, such as methods of orienting liquid crystals. Liquid crystals -- systems intermediating from the structural point of view between ordinary liquids and solid crystals -- are very sensitive to the action of any surface. This makes the interfacial phenomena in these substances extraordinarily variable and interesting. In this comprehensive monograph, the author presents a comprehensive review of the current state and potential future of the study of the surface of liquid crystals.

Liquid Surfaces And Interfaces

Author: Peter S. Pershan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139536117
Size: 10.59 MB
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The availability of synchrotron x-ray sources and the subsequent developments described in this book have led to substantial progress in our understanding of molecular ordering at liquid interfaces. This practical guide enables graduate students and researchers working in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to understand and carry out experimental investigations into the basic physical and chemical properties of liquid surfaces and interfaces. The book examines the surfaces of bulk liquids, thin wetting films and buried liquid-liquid interfaces. It discusses experiments on simple and complex fluids, including pure water and organic liquids, liquid crystals, liquid metals, electrified liquid-liquid interfaces and interfacial monolayers of amphiphiles, nanoparticles, polymers and biomolecules. A detailed description of the apparatus and techniques required for these experiments is provided, and theoretical approaches to data analysis are described, including approximate methods such as the Master formula, the Born approximation, Parratt's algorithm and the Distorted Wave Approximation.

Polymer Surfaces And Interfaces

Author: K. L. Mittal
Publisher: VSP
ISBN: 9789067642170
Size: 18.56 MB
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Polymeric materials are used for a legion of applications in a wide array of technological areas, and their proper surface/interface characteristics are of cardinal importance for their applications. Therefore, the need to characterize polymer surfaces/interfaces and their suitable modification to impart desired characteristics is quite patent. This book chronicles the proceedings of the Symposium on Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces: Characterization, Modification and Application held as a part of the Society of Plastics Engineers Annual Technical Conference, Boston, May 7--11, 1995. The articles in this book address many aspects of polymer surfaces and interfaces. Topics covered include: various ways (chemical, photochemical, laser, flame, corona) to modify polymer surfaces; modification of contact lens surfaces; various ways to analyze/characterize polymer surfaces; metal/polymer interfaces; metal/polyimide adhesion; metal/self-assembled organic monolayer interfaces; polymer alignment layers for liquid crystals; alignment of liquid crystal surfaces; polyimide alignment layers; molecular re-orientation of polymer surfaces; plasma polymerized organic coatings; epoxy/fiber interphase; epoxy underfill materials for packaging integrated circuits; transport in polymers; polymer miscibility; and cell adhesion.

Chemical Bonding At Surfaces And Interfaces

Author: Anders Nilsson
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080551913
Size: 54.72 MB
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Molecular surface science has made enormous progress in the past 30 years. The development can be characterized by a revolution in fundamental knowledge obtained from simple model systems and by an explosion in the number of experimental techniques. The last 10 years has seen an equally rapid development of quantum mechanical modeling of surface processes using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Chemical Bonding at Surfaces and Interfaces focuses on phenomena and concepts rather than on experimental or theoretical techniques. The aim is to provide the common basis for describing the interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces and this to be used very broadly in science and technology. The book begins with an overview of structural information on surface adsorbates and discusses the structure of a number of important chemisorption systems. Chapter 2 describes in detail the chemical bond between atoms or molecules and a metal surface in the observed surface structures. A detailed description of experimental information on the dynamics of bond-formation and bond-breaking at surfaces make up Chapter 3. Followed by an in-depth analysis of aspects of heterogeneous catalysis based on the d-band model. In Chapter 5 adsorption and chemistry on the enormously important Si and Ge semiconductor surfaces are covered. In the remaining two Chapters the book moves on from solid-gas interfaces and looks at solid-liquid interface processes. In the final chapter an overview is given of the environmentally important chemical processes occurring on mineral and oxide surfaces in contact with water and electrolytes. Gives examples of how modern theoretical DFT techniques can be used to design heterogeneous catalysts This book suits the rapid introduction of methods and concepts from surface science into a broad range of scientific disciplines where the interaction between a solid and the surrounding gas or liquid phase is an essential component Shows how insight into chemical bonding at surfaces can be applied to a range of scientific problems in heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, environmental science and semiconductor processing Provides both the fundamental perspective and an overview of chemical bonding in terms of structure, electronic structure and dynamics of bond rearrangements at surfaces

Nematic And Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

Author: Patrick Oswald
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203023013
Size: 61.25 MB
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Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics (linear and non linear). This excellent volume meets the need for an up-to-date text on liquid crystals. Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The first part of the book presents historical background, the modern classification of liquid crystals, and mesogenic anatomy; the second part examines liquid crystals with nematic and cholesteric orientational order. Topics include dielectric and magnetic properties, Frederiks transitions and displays, light scattering, flow and electrohydrodynamic instabilities, surface anchoring transitions, interfaces, equilibrium shapes, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Smectic and columnar liquid crystals are covered in more detail by the authors in a separate volume, entitled Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments. The presentation is illustrated throughout by simple experiments, some of which were performed in class. Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments provides a useful reference intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in liquid crystals, condensed matter physics, and materials science.

Liquid Crystal Sensors

Author: Albert Schenning
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351646850
Size: 33.89 MB
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Liquid Crystal Sensors discusses novel applications of liquid crystals that lie beyond electrically driven optical switches and displays. The main focus is on recent progress in the area of sensors based on low molar mass and polymer liquid crystals. This area of research became "hot" in recent years since the possibilities for applications of liquid crystal sensors are growing in many areas, ranging from the detection of mechanical displacements to the detection of environmental pollutants and chemical agents. This book is well-suited for students, as well as scientists from different backgrounds. For students and researchers new to the field, it gives a thorough introduction. For experienced researchers it shows the latest breakthroughs and serves as an inspiration for solving problems or sparking new ideas.

Polymer Surfaces And Interfaces

Author: Manfred Stamm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540738657
Size: 62.15 MB
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In what is an extremely practical and applicable new work, experts provide concise explanations, with examples and illustrations, of the key techniques in this important field. In each case, after basic principles have been reviewed, applications of the experimental techniques are discussed and illustrated with specific examples. Scientists and engineers in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems. They will know that the surfaces and interfaces of polymers play an important role in most of the application areas of polymers, from moulds, foils, and composites, to biomaterials and applications in micro- and nanotechnology.

Physical Chemistry Of Gas Liquid Interfaces

Author: Jennifer A. Faust
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128136421
Size: 40.42 MB
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Physical Chemistry of Gas-Liquid Interfaces, the first volume in the Developments in Physical & Theoretical Chemistry series, addresses the physical chemistry of gas transport and reactions across liquid surfaces. Gas–liquid interfaces are all around us, especially within atmospheric systems such as sea spry aerosols, cloud droplets, and the surface of the ocean. Because the reaction environment at liquid surfaces is completely unlike bulk gas or bulk liquid, chemists must readjust their conceptual framework when entering this field. This book provides the necessary background in thermodynamics and computational and experimental techniques for scientists to obtain a thorough understanding of the physical chemistry of liquid surfaces in complex, real-world environments. Provides an interdisciplinary view of the chemical dynamics of liquid surfaces, making the content of specific use to physical chemists and atmospheric scientists Features 100 figures and illustrations to underscore key concepts and aid in retention for young scientists in industry and graduate students in the classroom Helps scientists who are transitioning to this field by offering the appropriate thermodynamic background and surveying the current state of research

Liquid Crystal Dispersions

Author: Paul S Drzaic
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814518123
Size: 62.77 MB
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Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) materials are of interest both for their potential in display technology and the fascinating science found in liquid crystals confined to small cavities. Liquid Crystal Dispersions is a comprehensive overview of the science and technology of this new class of materials. Topics covered include formation of PDLC devices, a catalog of droplet structures and transformations, device electro-optical properties, and applications. Liquid Crystal Dispersions will be of value to the nonspecialists keen on gaining an overview of this new field, as well as to specialists interested in a comprehensive review of work in this area. Contents:Introduction:The PDLC ParadigmRecipes:Emulsion Methods for PDLC FilmsPhase Separation Methods for PDLC FilmsNematic Configurations within Droplets:Factors Controlling Nematic AlignmentCatalog of Droplet StructuresTransformations between Droplet StructuresElectro-Optical Effects:Light ScatteringDichroic Effects in PDLC FilmsHysteresis and Memory EffectsPDLC Electrical PropertiesApplications:Projection DisplaysDirect-View Scattering-Mode Displaysand other papers Readership: Liquid crystal research scientists and people interested in display technology. keywords: “It is difficult to think of a better author to provide an overview of Liquid Crystal Dispersions than Paul Drzaic … a most welcome addition to his contributions … wholeheartedly recommending this book to both beginners and specialists. It is very well researched and clearly written for all levels of expertise.” Liquid Crystals Today