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Synthesis Crystal Growth And Characterization

Author: K. Lal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 008098469X
Size: 44.26 MB
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Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization presents the proceedings of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, held on October 12-23, 1981, at the National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India. The book consists of lectures by distinguished scientists from around the world who tackle different aspects of synthesis, crystal growth, characterization of materials, energy conversion, and energy storage. Organized into four parts encompassing 26 chapters, the book begins with an overview of the synthesis of materials at high temperatures and pressures before turning to a discussion of how macrocrystalline and amorphous silicon is prepared. It then looks at fundamental principles underlying the process of crystal growth, both from the vapor phase and from melt, and methodically introduces the reader to the different techniques used to characterize materials, including neutron scattering and electron transport. The next chapters focus on point defects and aggregates that influence the critical electronic properties of semiconducting materials, X-ray diffraction studies of strains and stresses in thin films used in solid-state devices, and electron spectroscopic studies of solid surfaces. The book also considers the role of physics in microelectronics and vice versa, fast ion transport in solids, and the concept of Syadvada in relation to modern physics. This volume is a valuable resource for participants of the International School on Synthesis, Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, as well as active researchers working in areas related to the field.

Synthesis Crystal Growth Structural And Magnetic Characterization Of Nh4mcl2 Hcoo M

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In this paper, an ambient-pressure solution route and an improved solvothermal synthetic method have been developed to produce polycrystalline powders and large single crystals of NH4MCl2(HCOO) (M=Fe, Co, Ni). The magnetic structure of the 1D linear chain compound NH4FeCl2(HCOO) has been determined by low-temperature neutron powder diffraction, revealing ferromagnetic intra-chain interactions and antiferromagnetic inter-chain interactions. Finally, the newly-reported Co and Ni analogs are isostructural with NH4FeCl2(HCOO), but there are significant differences in the magnetic properties of each compound; the Ni analog behaves similarly to the Fe compound but with stronger magnetic coupling, exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering (TN=8.5 K) and a broad metamagnetic transition between 2 and 5 T, while the Co analog does not order magnetically above 2 K, despite strong antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions.

Growth And Characterization Of Bulk Superconductor Material

Author: Dapeng Chen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331931548X
Size: 15.89 MB
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This book focuses on recently developed crystal growth techniques to grow large and high quality superconducting single crystals. The techniques applied are traveling solvent floating zone (TSFZ) with infrared image furnace, Bridgeman, solution/flux and top seeded solution growth (TSSG) methods. The materials range from cuprates, cobaltates to pnictides including La2CuO4-based (LCO), YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO), Bi2Sr2Can−1CunO2n+4+δ (n=1,2,3) (BSCCO) to NaxCoO2. The modified Bridgman “cold finger” method is devoted to the pnictide system with the best quality (transition width DTc~0.5 K) with highest Tc~38.5 K of Ba0.68K0.32Fe2A2. The book presents various iron-based superconductors with different structures, such as 1111, 122, 111, 11 and 42622,10-3-8. Detailed single crystal growth methods (fluxes, Bridgman, floating zone), the associated procedures and their impact to crystal size and quality are presented. The book also describes the influence of doping on the structure and the electric, magnetic, and superconducting properties of these compounds in a comparative study of different growth methods. It describes particularly under-, optimal and over-doped with oxygen cuprates (LCO, YBCO and BSCCO) and hole/electron/isovalently doped parent compounds AFe2As2 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) (122), chalcogenides AxFe2-ySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs) (122), and Fe1-dTe1-xSex (11). A review of the current growth technologies and future growth efforts handling volatile and poisonous components are also presented.

Salts Of Amino Acids

Author: Michel Fleck
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319062999
Size: 51.10 MB
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Over the last decades, amino acids have been found to be of importance in many fields of science. Apart from their biological function, this family of organic compounds has been employed in the synthesis of a vast variety of salts, with impact on areas such as materials science, pharmaceutical or physical research. This covers a wide range, from the discovery of important ferroelectrics or non-linear optical materials to nutrients, flavor enhancers or drugs. This book describes amino acids and their salts with cations, anions and inorganic compounds from a chemical, physical and crystallographical point of view. Additional data on structural properties, crystal growth and the relation of structure and physical properties of amino acid salts is discussed.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: Kullaiah Byrappa
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815516800
Size: 44.24 MB
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Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with ""Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals"" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.

Chemische Transportreaktionen

Author: Michael Binnewies
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110248964
Size: 25.49 MB
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Unter dem Begriff Chemische Transportreaktionen fasst man eine Vielzahl von Reaktionen mit einem gemeinsamen Merkmal zusammen: Eine feste oder flA1/4ssige Komponente wird in Gegenwart eines gasfArmigen Reaktionspartners, des Transportmittels, verflA1/4chtigt und scheidet sich an anderer Stelle meist in Form gut ausgebildeter Kristalle wieder ab. Die Abscheidung kann dann erfolgen, wenn am Ort der Kristallisation andere AuAere Bedingungen herrschen als am Ort der VerflA1/4chtigung, in der Regel eine andere Temperatur. HAufig ist der Chemische Transport mit einem Reinigungseffekt verbunden. Wir haben es also mit einem Verfahren zur Herstellung reiner und gut kristallisierter Feststoffe zu tun. Insbesondere die Herstellung von Einkristallen stellt einen besonderen Wert dar, denn sie ermAglicht unter anderem die Bestimmung der Kristallstruktur mit Hilfe von RAntgenbeugungsverfahren. Aoeber diese Aspekte der reinen Grundlagenforschung hinaus haben Chemische Transportreaktionen auch eine praktische Bedeutung erlangt: Sie bilden die Grundlage der Funktionsweise von Halogenlampen. Auch ein groAtechnisches Verfahren beruht auf einer Chemischen Transportreaktion, das MOND-LANGER-Verfahren zur Herstellung von hochreinem Nickel.

Recent Trends In Materials Science And Applications

Author: Jeyasingh Ebenezar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319448900
Size: 35.12 MB
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This book gathers the proceedings of the plenary sessions, invited lectures, and papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications (ICRTMSA-2016). It also features revealing presentations on various aspects of Materials Science, such as nanomaterials, photonic crystal fibers, quantum dots, thin film techniques, crystal growth, spectroscopic procedures, fabrication and characterisation of new materials / compounds with enhanced features, and potential applications in nonlinear optical and electro-optic devices, solar cell device, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, energy storage device etc. This book will be of great interest to beginning and seasoned researchers alike.