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Systems Neuroscience In Depression

Author: Thomas Frodl
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128026286
Size: 11.28 MB
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Systems Neuroscience in Depression provides a comprehensive overview of the normal and depressed brain processes as studied from a systems neuroscience perspective. Systems neuroscience uses a wide variety of approaches to study how networks of neurons form the bases of higher brain function. A broad overview is discussed starting with a background from neurodevelopment and neural understanding as well as novel treatment approaches for depression. This book covers basic developmental aspects and depressive psychopathology, as well as the basic scientific background from animal models and experimental research. Current advances in systems neuroscience are highlighted in studies from child and adolescent psychiatry. Integrated approaches are presented with regards to genetics, neuroimaging and neuroinflammation as well as neuroendocrinology. The field of systems and network neuroscience is evolving rapidly and this book provides a greatly needed resource for researchers and practitioners in systems neuroscience and psychiatry. Knowledge covering the whole life span from early to later life Comprehensively written chapters developing from molecules via epigenetics and neural circuits to clinical neuroscience Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder Integrating stress and environmental factors with molecular underpinnings More than 25 illustrations and tables

Resting State Brain Activity Implications For Systems Neuroscience

Author: Vinod Menon
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190412
Size: 23.98 MB
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Research on resting state brain activity using fMRI offers a novel approach for understanding brain organization at the systems level. Resting state fMRI examines spatial synchronization of intrinsic fluctuations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals arising from neuronal and synaptic activity that is present in the absence of overt cognitive information processing. Since the discovery of coherent spontaneous fluctuations within the somatomotor system (Biswal, et al. 1995), a growing number of studies have shown that many of the brain areas engaged during various cognitive tasks also form coherent large-scale brain networks that can be readily identified using resting state fMRI. These studies are beginning to provide new insights into the functional architecture of the human brain. This Research Topic will synthesize current knowledge about resting state brain activity and discuss their implications for understanding brain function and dysfunction from a systems neuroscience perspective. This topic will also provide perspectives on important conceptual and methodological questions that the field needs to address in the next years. In addition to invited reviews and perspectives, we solicit research articles on theoretical, experimental and clinical questions related to the nature, origins and functions of resting state brain activity.

Psychiatry And Clinical Neuroscience

Author: Charles Zorumski and Eugene Rubin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199877602
Size: 19.96 MB
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Psychiatric disorders are brain disorders, reflecting dysfunction within and across neural networks. Advances in functional neuroimaging and cellular neuroscience offer hope of revolutionizing the approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. This resource presents an introduction to network neuroscience and demonstrates the relationship of advances in this field to the future of psychiatry. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Traumatic Brain Injury As A Systems Neuroscience Problem

Author: H. Isaac Chen
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889450988
Size: 44.90 MB
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is traditionally viewed as an anatomic and neuropathological condition. Caring for TBI patients is a matter of defining the extent of an anatomical lesion, managing this lesion, and minimizing secondary brain injury. On the research side, the effects of TBI often are studied in the context of neuronal and axonal degeneration and the subsequent deposition of abnormal proteins such as tau. These approaches form the basis of our current understanding of TBI, but they pay less attention to the function of the affected organ, the brain. Much can be learned about TBI by studying this disorder on a systems neuroscience level and correlating changes in neural circuitry with neurological and cognitive function. There are several aspects of TBI that are a natural fit for this perspective, including post-traumatic epilepsy, consciousness, and cognitive sequelae. How individual neurons contribute to network activity and how network function responds to injury are key concepts in examining these areas. In recent years, the available tools for studying the role of neuronal assemblies in TBI have become increasingly sophisticated, ranging from optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to advanced imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography. Further progress in understanding the disruption and subsequent reshaping of networks is likely to have substantial benefits in the treatment of patients with TBI-associated deficits. In this Frontiers Topic, we intend to highlight the systems neuroscience approach to studying TBI. In addition to analyzing the clinical sequelae of TBI in this context, this series of articles explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying network dysfunction, including alterations in synaptic activity, changes in neural oscillation patterns, and disruptions in functional connectivity. We also include articles on treatment options for TBI patients that modulate network function. It is our hope that this Frontiers Topic will increase the clinical and scientific communities’ awareness of this viable framework for deepening our knowledge of TBI and improving patient outcomes.

Handbook Of In Vivo Neural Plasticity Techniques

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128120274
Size: 49.84 MB
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Handbook of in Vivo Neural Plasticity Techniques, Volume 28: A Systems Neuroscience Approach to the Neural Basis of Memory and Cognition gives a comprehensive overview of the current methods and approaches that are used to study neural plasticity from a systems neuroscience perspective. In addition, the book offers in-depth methodological advice that provides the necessary foundation for researchers establishing methods and students who need to understand the theoretical and methodological bases of these approaches. This is the ideal resource for anyone new to the study of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience who seeks an introduction to state-of-the-art techniques. Offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to studying neuroplasticity in vivo Combines discussions of theoretical underpinnings with the methodological and technical aspects necessary to guarantee success Arranged in a uniform format that clearly and concisely lays out descriptions, methods and the pitfalls of various techniques

Ringing Ears The Neuroscience Of Tinnitus

Author: Jos J. Eggermont
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889190390
Size: 53.30 MB
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Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) is a prevalent and often debilitating disorder with approximately 10% of people (incorporating ages from children to the elderly) perceiving it continuously, and in 1-3% of the population it seriously affects the quality of life. The most common cause of tinnitus is hearing loss, and its prevalence has surged as a result from the various large-scale military actions in the Middle East in the last decade. Recent advances have been made in the area of behavioral animal models, in the understanding of human brain imaging aspects of tinnitus, and in addressing the long-range changes in human brain connectivity. Furthermore continued exploration of the three major animal models of tinnitus: salicylate-induced, noise trauma induced, and resulting from somatic interactions with the auditory system has further delineated the relative roles of cochlear activity vs. central auditory system changes. Evidence for the role of neural synchrony changes in tinnitus originates both from human EEG and MEG studies as well as from neuron pair-correlation studies in animals.

Vulnerability To Depression

Author: Rick E. Ingram
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 160918257X
Size: 22.97 MB
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Providing a cutting-edge examination of the mechanisms underlying depression, this volume integrates important areas of research that have largely remained separate. The authors explore both the cognitive and neurological processes that make some people more vulnerable than others to developing depression and experiencing recurrent episodes. They also probe how these processes interact—how negative life experiences, maladaptive belief systems, and patterns of thinking may actually affect neural circuitry, and vice versa. Explaining sophisticated theory and research in an accessible style, the book highlights the implications for improving clinical practices and patient outcomes.

Neuroscience Based Cognitive Therapy

Author: Tullio Scrimali
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111999375X
Size: 75.97 MB
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A pioneer of CBT explores recent advances in neuroscience, showing how they can be applied in practice to improve the effectiveness of cognitive therapy for clients with a wide range of diagnoses including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and schizophrenia Utilizes the latest advances in neuroscience to introduce tools that allow clinicians, for the first time, to directly ‘measure' the effectiveness of cognitive therapy interventions Rigorously based in neuroscientific research, yet designed to be readable and jargon-free for a professional market of CBT practitioners Covers theory, assessment, and the treatment of a wide range of specific disorders including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, addictions and schizophrenia Written by a respected pioneer in the field

Neurobiology Of Depression

Author: Francisco Lopez-Munoz
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 143983850X
Size: 30.95 MB
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Major depressive disorders have recently been associated with impairments in signaling pathways that regulate neuroplasticity and cell survival. Agents designed to directly target molecules in these pathways hold promise as new therapeutics for depression. With the collaboration of the most prestigious international specialists in biochemistry, molecular biology, genomics, psychiatry, psychology, and pharmacology, Neurobiology of Depression discusses the nature of the central nervous system circuits responsible for the modifications of neuronal functioning that lead to depression. The book begins by discussing animal, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological models of depression as well as neural foundations. It explores genetic factors that contribute to depression and describes the effect of monoaminergic systems in the central nervous system. Next, the book profiles the rise of psychopharmacology in the treatment of depression and the research into serotonin and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. It examines the role of the glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and opioid systems in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, as well as the effect of biological rhythms on the human body. Later chapters review the role of CRF-related ligands, CRF receptors, HPA axis activity, and glucocorticoid receptors in the regulation of the stress response and depression. They also describe cytokine modulation of molecular mechanisms. They examine the role of neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide, beta-arrestins, BDNF, and phosphodiesterases, and discuss the use of tachykinin antagonists in treatment. Finally, they analyze the neurobiological basis for the development of new antidepressant agents. Exploring myriad aspects of a disease that plagues a large percentage of the population worldwide, this volume captures the state of the science of this debilitating disorder, facilitating further research and discovery.