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Taming The System

Author: Samuel Walker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195360158
Size: 41.27 MB
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It is a truism that the administration of criminal justice consists of a series of discretionary decisions by police, prosecutors, judges, and other officials. Taming the System is a history of the forty-year effort to control the discretion. It examines the discretion problem from the initial "discovery" of the phenomenon by the American Bar Foundation in the 1950s through to the most recent evaluation research on reform measures. Of enormous value to scholars, reformers, and criminal justice professionals, this book approaches the discretion problem through a detailed examination of four decision points: policing, bail setting, plea bargaining, and sentencing. In a field which largely produces short-ranged "evaluation research," this study, in taking a wider approach, distinguishes between the role of administrative bodies (the police) and evaluates the longer-term trends and the successful reforms in criminal justice history.

Handled With Discretion

Author: John Kleinig
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780847681778
Size: 74.40 MB
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Criticisms of how police exercise their authority are neither new nor uncommon. Police officers have considerable power, and they often must draw on that power in complex and pressing circumstances. This collection of essays by fifteen leading specialists in ethics and criminal justice examines the nature of police discretion and its many varieties. The essays explore the kinds of judgment calls police officers frequently must make: When should they get involved? Whom should they watch? What constitutes a "disturbance of the peace"? What resources should be devoted to a situation? Does social welfare take precedence over law enforcement? Under what conditions, if any, may police officers engage in selective enforcement of the law? Each essay or pair of essays is followed by a response, making Handled with Discretion an excellent text for stimulating discussion in the classroom. Contributors: Arthur Isak Applbaum, Howard Cohen, Michael Davis, James J. Fyfe, Diana Gordon, Vidar Halvorsen, William C. Heffernan, Robert Jackall, John Kleining, Candace McCoy, Howard McGary, Joan McGregor, John Pittman, Jeffery Reiman, David Wasserman

Decision Making In Criminal Justice

Author: Michael R. Gottfredson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475799543
Size: 51.35 MB
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The study of decisions in the criminal justice process provides a useful focus for the examination of many fundamental aspects of criminal jus tice. These decisions are not always highly visible. They are made, or dinarily, within wide areas of discretion. The aims of the decisions are not always clear, and, indeed, the principal objectives of these decisions are often the subject of much debate. Usually they are not guided by explicit decision policies. Often the participants are unable to verbalize the basis for the selection of decision alternatives. Adequate information for the decisions is usually unavailable. Rarely can the decisions be demonstrated to be rational. By a rationaldecision we mean "that decision among those possible for the decisionmaker which, in the light of the information available, maximizes the probability of the achievement of the purpose of the decisionmaker in that specific and particular case" (Wilkins, 1974a: 70; also 1969). This definition, which stems from statistical decision theory, points to three fundamental characteristics of decisions. First, it is as sumed that a choice of possible decisions (or, more precisely, of possible alternatives) is available. If only one choice is possible, there is no de cision problem, and the question of rationality does not arise. Usually, of course, there will be a choice, even if the alternative is to decide not to decide-a choice that, of course, often has profound consequences.

Taking Stock

Author: Francis T. Cullen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351487027
Size: 48.14 MB
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Criminology is in a period of much theoretical ferment. Older theories have been revitalized, and newer theories have been set forth. Th e very richness of our thinking about crime, however, leads to questions about the relative merits of these competin paradigms. Accordingly, in this volume advocates of prominent theories are asked to "take stock" of their perspectives. Th eir challenge is to assess the empirical status of their theory and to map out future directions for theoretical development.

The Culture Of Control

Author: David Garland
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198299370
Size: 18.10 MB
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This work charts the changes in crime control & criminal justice that have occurred in Britain & America over the last 25 years. It then explains these transformations by showing how social organisation has prompted political and cultural adaptations.

Criminal Justice Theory

Author: Edward R. Maguire
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134706189
Size: 62.44 MB
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Criminal Justice Theory, Second Edition is the first and only text, edited by U.S. criminal justice educators, on the theoretical foundations of criminal justice, not criminological theory. This new edition includes entirely new chapters as well as revisions to all others, with an eye to accessibility and coherence for upper division undergraduate and beginning graduate students in the field.

Encyclopedia Of Crime And Punishment

Author: David Levinson
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452265291
Size: 11.98 MB
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Winner of Reference USA, Booklist Editor's Choice and CHOICE 2002 Outstanding Academic Title awards! `The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment provides the much-needed practices, policies, and research and will be of interest to students, teachers, and the general reader alike. This work should be on the shelves of all libraries with collections in the social sciences' - Larry E Sullivan, John Jay College of Criminal Justice With 1.5 million words in almost 500 entries, this four-volume Encyclopedia is the definitive resource for anyone interested in crime and criminal justice. The contributors to the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment are experts from 16 countries: academics, lawyers, police, probation and prison officers, and administrators. The project was aided by an advisory board including renowned researchers and librarians from leading centres of criminal justice studies. The Encyclopedia provides readers with a comprehensive, authoritative 21st century reference resource on crime and punishment. The entries come from many sources - sociological surveys, ethnographic observation, government reports, clinical interviews, evaluation research, media reports, crime fiction and true crime literature, among others. This reference tool is of great value to practitioners and university students alike. University students interested in a career in criminal justice will find the Encyclopedia a useful overview of the entire field. Students in criminology, law, sociology, political science and other related disciplines will find it an accessible entry point into the vast and ever expanding litereature on crime and punishment. Topics covered include: - Crimes and Types of Crimes - Law and Justice - Policing and Forensics - Prisons - Victimology - Social/Cultural Contexts - Concepts and Theories - The Study of Crime and Punishment - Organizations and Institutions - Special Populations (For example: women, children, racial/ethnic groups) Features include: - Broader, more up-todate coverage than any other source on the market - 150 Illustrations - Four volumes - 2400 pages - 425 entries - A to Z format - 100 `Factoids', spotlighting important and sometimes startling, information - Over 500 photos, charts, tables, graphs - Bibliography: at end of each entry and master bibliography in Volume 4 - Chronology at the beginning of each volume - Appendices: Careers in criminal justice, professional organizations, guidance on using the Web to collect accurate information - An extensive index The Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment is an essential resource for all libraries with collections in criminology and social justice.

How Do Judges Decide

Author: Cassia Spohn
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1412961041
Size: 42.22 MB
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How are sentences for Federal, State, and Local crimes determined in the United States? Is this process fairly and justly applied to all concerned? How have reforms affected the process over the last 25 years? This text for advanced undergraduate students in criminal justice programs seeks to answer these questions.

Just Revenge

Author: Mark Costanzo
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9780312179458
Size: 13.68 MB
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A professor of social psychology explores the history of execution in America, weighing its social costs, discussing its potential benefits and problems, and building a new model for understanding the politics behind the death penalty.

The New World Of Police Accountability

Author: Samuel Walker
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1412909449
Size: 56.71 MB
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This book examines coverage of current police controversies; discusses important new mechanisms of accountability, such as comprehensive use of force reporting, citizen complaint procedures, early intervention systems, and police auditors; provides extensive coverage of racial profiling; includes a helpful list of Web sites for further research on the topics covered in the book. It is designed as a supplementary textbook for undergraduate and graduate policing courses in the departments of criminal justice and criminology. The book will also be of interest to scholars, police officials, citizen oversight officials, and community activists.