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Technology Adaptation And Exports

Author: Vandana Chandra
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821365088
Size: 13.49 MB
Format: PDF
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The literature on technological change and growth has mainly used econometric models to establish that factors such as the degree of openness, skills, research and development expenditures, number of patents etc. are critical determinants of innovation and its effect on growth. However, this approach fails to explain the role of institutions and policies that created the environment for innovation. Using 10 case studies from developing countries, this book examines how governments fostered technological adaptation through public-private partnerships to develop world-class exporters in high-growth, non-traditional industries.

Technological Adaptation Trade And Growth

Author: Alberto Chong
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN:
Size: 64.33 MB
Format: PDF
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This paper extends Grossman and Helpman’s seminal work (1991), and presents an endogenous growth model where innovations created in a high-tech sector may be assimilated or adapted by a low-tech sector. Applying a simple Heckscher-Ohlin framework, the effects of technological diffusion are found to allow a country relatively scarce in human capital to benefit from nondecreasing rates of growth through its low-tech sector. The model is tested by using a dynamic panel data approach (Arellano and Bover, 1995). Results are consistent with the predictions of the model and robust to a broad range of definitions of technological intensity.

Rwanda Fast Forward

Author: Patrick Noack
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137265159
Size: 43.40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The authors explore the outlook of Rwanda in the context of development of East Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. They examine Rwanda's vision, achievements and uncertainties in terms of national unity, institutional leadership, the spectre of industrial policy and economic development,perceptions of civil society engagement, etc.

Technology Trade And Growth In Oecd Countries

Author: Valentina Meliciani
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134548621
Size: 32.16 MB
Format: PDF
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Presenting new material and a fresh perspective, Technology, Trade and Growth in OECD Countries, provides a unifying framework for the exploration of the role played by specialisation in economic growth and international competitiveness.

Global Migration

Author: K. Khory
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137007125
Size: 78.84 MB
Format: PDF
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Immigration today evokes passionate debates over questions of national identity, state sovereignty, and citizenship. Even as capital, goods, and services flow easily over national boundaries, human beings are subjected to intense scrutiny and resistance when crossing borders. In this collection of essays, distinguished scholars probe the challenges and opportunities that global migration presents for individuals, states, and societies grappling with questions of identity, belonging, and citizenship. Multidisciplinary in scope, the book demonstrates how forced and voluntary migrations intersect with global politics, from economic and environmental crises to human rights and security.

Technological Nature

Author: Peter H. Kahn
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262113228
Size: 20.48 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Why it matters that our relationship with nature is increasingly mediated and augmented by technology. Our forebears may have had a close connection with the natural world, but increasingly we experience technological nature. Children come of age watching digital nature programs on television. They inhabit virtual lands in digital games. And they play with robotic animals, purchased at big box stores. Until a few years ago, hunters could "telehunt"--shoot and kill animals in Texas from a computer anywhere in the world via a Web interface. Does it matter that much of our experience with nature is mediated and augmented by technology? In Technological Nature, Peter Kahn argues that it does, and shows how it affects our well-being. Kahn describes his investigations of children's and adults' experiences of cutting-edge technological nature. He and his team installed "technological nature windows" (50-inch plasma screens showing high-definition broadcasts of real-time local nature views) in inside offices on his university campus and assessed the physiological and psychological effects on viewers. He studied children's and adults' relationships with the robotic dog AIBO (including possible benefits for children with autism). And he studied online "telegardening" (a pastoral alternative to "telehunting"). Kahn's studies show that in terms of human well-being technological nature is better than no nature, but not as good as actual nature. We should develop and use technological nature as a bonus on life, not as its substitute, and re-envision what is beautiful and fulfilling and often wild in essence in our relationship with the natural world.

Toxic Exports

Author: Jennifer Clapp
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501735934
Size: 14.19 MB
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In recent years, international trade in toxic waste and hazardous technologies by firms in rich industrialized countries has emerged as a routine practice. Many poor countries have accepted these deadly imports but are ill equipped to manage the materials safely. For more than a decade, environmentalists and the governments of developing countries have lobbied intensively and generated public outcry in an attempt to halt hazardous transfers from Northern industrialized nations to the Third World, but the practice continues. In her insightful and important book, Jennifer Clapp addresses this alarming problem. Clapp describes the responses of those engaged in hazard transfer to international regulations, and in particular to the 1989 adoption of the Basel Convention. She pinpoints a key weakness of the regulations—because hazard transfer is dynamic, efforts to stop one form of toxic export prompt new forms to emerge. For instance, laws intended to ban the disposal of toxic wastes in the Third World led corporations to ship these byproducts to poor countries for "recycling." And, Clapp warns, current efforts to prohibit this "recycling movement" may accelerate a new business endeavor: the relocation to poor countries of entire industries that generate toxic wastes. Clapp concludes that the dynamic nature of hazard transfer results from increasingly fluid global trade and investment relations in the context of a highly unequal world, and from the leading role played by multinational corporations and environmental NGOs. Governments, she maintains, have for too long failed to capture the initiative and have instead only reacted to these opposing forces.