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Thanatia The Destiny Of The Earth S Mineral Resources

Author: Antonio Valero Capilla
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814602493
Size: 46.34 MB
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Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today. This book presents a cradle-to-cradle view of the Earth's abiotic resources through a novel and rigorous approach based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat dissipates and materials deteriorate and disperse. Quality is irreversibly lost. This allows for the assessment of such depletion and can be used to estimate the year where production of the main mineral commodities could reach its zenith. By postulating Thanatia, one acquires a sense of destiny and a concern for a unified global management of the planet's abiotic resource endowment. The book covers the core aspects of geology, geochemistry, mining, metallurgy, economics, the environment, thermodynamics and thermochemistry. It is supported by comprehensive databases related to mineral resources, including detailed compositions of the Earth's layers, thermochemical properties of over 300 substances, historical energy and mineral resource inventories, energy consumption and environmental impacts in the mining and metallurgical sector and world recycling rates of commodities. Contents:The Threads: Minerals, Economy and Thermodynamics:The Depletion of Non-Renewable Abiotic ResourcesEconomic versus Thermodynamic AccountingFrom Thermodynamics to Economics and EcologyPhysical Geonomics: A Cradle-Grave-Cradle Approach for Mineral Depletion AssessmentOver the Rainbow: From Nature to Industry:The Geochemistry of the EarthThe Resources of the EarthAn Introduction to Mining and MetallurgyMetallurgy of Key MineralsDown the Rainbow: From Grave to Cradle:Thermodynamics of Mineral ResourcesThanatia and the Crepuscular Earth ModelThe Exergy of the Earth and Its Mineral ResourcesThe Exergy Replacement Costs of Mineral WealthThe Exergy Evolution of Mineral WealthTying the Rainbows: Towards a Rational Management of Resources:Recycling SolutionsThe Challenge of Resource DepletionThe Principles of Resource EfficiencyEpilogue Readership: Thermodynamicists, geologists, economists, policy makers, and mining, environmental and chemical engineers. Keywords:Exergy;Mineral Resources;Depletion;Hubbert Peak;Gibbs Free Energy;Mineralogical Composition of the Earth;ThermodynamicsReviews: "This is an exhaustive treatment of the subject with numerous tables of the baseline date and discussions going from basic thermodynamics to economics and social sciences. It is an essential read for any scientist who is concerned with resource evaluation and how we can best manage these assets and continue to live on an Earth in which we appreciate the service provided by the resource and thus avoid Thanatia in defence of Gaia." John Ludden Executive Director, British Geological Survey “'Thanatia' presents a refreshing way of analysing the run-down of our mineral inheritance … To serious students of the resource problem the numerous tables in 'Thanatia' are useful because they are thought-provoking as much as for the numerical data. 'Thanatia' is a big book, with a wealth of data and background material on the minerals industry, representing many years of intensive investigation and analysis.” Jane H Hodgkinson & Frank D Stacey CSIRO, Australia Authors of The Earth as a Cradle for Life “The unusual title of the book Thanatia (death in Greek) leads its readers to understand what sustainability really means and to quantify the problem of mineral depletion using both disciplines thermodynamics and economics. ” Ph. Vieillard Director of Research C.N.R.S., Poitiers, France

Thanatia

Author: Antonio Valero Capilla
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814273930
Size: 67.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 6805
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Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today. This book presents a cradle-to-cradle view of the Earth's abiotic resources through a novel and rigorous approach based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat dissipates and materials deteriorate and disperse. Quality is irreversibly lost. This allows for the assessment of such depletion and can be used to estimate the year where production of the main mineral commodities could reach its zenith. By postulating Thanatia, one acquires a sense of destiny and a concern for a unified global management of the planet's abiotic resource endowment. The book covers the core aspects of geology, geochemistry, mining, metallurgy, economics, the environment, thermodynamics and thermochemistry. It is supported by comprehensive databases related to mineral resources, including detailed compositions of the Earth's layers, thermochemical properties of over 300 substances, historical energy and mineral resource inventories, energy consumption and environmental impacts in the mining and metallurgical sector and world recycling rates of commodities.

China S Virtual Monopoly Of Rare Earth Elements

Author: Roland Howanietz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351109898
Size: 13.58 MB
Format: PDF
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Rare Earth Elements are a group of 17 metals which have a central role in modern industry, increasingly used in the fields of green technologies, high technological consumer goods, industrial and medical appliances and modern weapons systems. Although deposits of Rare Earths are globally dispersed, over 90% of global demand has been provided by Chinese mines since the late 1990s, leading to a situation where China has a virtual monopoly. This book surveys the Rare Earths mining industry, discusses the extent to which Rare Earths really are scarce elsewhere in the world and assesses the economics of production, considering arguments for the rationing of supply, for higher pricing and for a total export embargo. This actually occurred in 2010, demonstrating the vulnerability of the rest of the world to China’s control of these increasingly vital resources.

Practical Handbook Of Earth Science

Author: Jane H. Hodgkinson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351374702
Size: 43.11 MB
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This self-contained handbook provides a carefully researched, compact source of key earth science information and data, logically sorted by subject matter, and then cross-referenced. Appealing to both experts and non-experts alike, the book presents earth science and environmental science as closely intertwined. It includes tables of the global distributions of fossil fuels, contrasted by tables of the distribution of non-fossil energy sources. Concise explanations cover the subject matters of geology, geophysics, oceans, atmosphere with attention to environmental implications and resources.

Exergy For A Better Environment And Improved Sustainability Volume 2

Author: Fethi Aloui
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319625756
Size: 37.56 MB
Format: PDF
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This multi-disciplinary book presents the most recent advances in exergy, energy, and environmental issues. Volume 2 focuses on applications and covers current problems, future needs, and prospects in the area of energy and environment from researchers worldwide. Based on selected lectures from the Seventh International Exergy, Energy and Environmental Symposium (IEEES7-2015) and complemented by further invited contributions, this comprehensive set of contributions promote the exchange of new ideas and techniques in energy conversion and conservation in order to exchange best practices in "energetic efficiency". Applications are included that apply to the green transportation and sustainable mobility sectors, especially regarding the development of sustainable technologies for thermal comforts and green transportation vehicles. Furthermore, contributions on renewable and sustainable energy sources, strategies for energy production, and the carbon-free society constitute an important part of this book. Exergy for Better Environment and Sustainablity, Volume 2 will appeal to researchers, students, and professionals within engineering and the renewable energy fields.

Thermodynamics For Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources

Author: Wojciech Stanek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319486497
Size: 30.17 MB
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This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management. Divided into two parts, the first section provides the theoretical background to assessment methods, while the second section provides practical application examples. The topics covered in detail include the theory of exergy cost and thermo-ecological cost, cumulative calculus and life cycle evaluation. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers looking to investigate a range of advanced thermodynamic assessments of the influence of production processes on the depletion of nonrenewable resources.

Land Surface Observation Modeling And Data Assimilation

Author: Shunlin Liang
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 981447262X
Size: 76.68 MB
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This book is unique in its ambitious and comprehensive coverage of earth system land surface characterization, from observation and modeling to data assimilation, including recent developments in theory and techniques, and novel application cases. The contributing authors are active research scientists, and many of them are internationally known leading experts in their areas, ensuring that the text is authoritative. This book comprises four parts that are logically connected from data, modeling, data assimilation integrating data and models to applications. Land data assimilation is the key focus of the book, which encompasses both theoretical and applied aspects with various novel methodologies and applications to the water cycle, carbon cycle, crop monitoring, and yield estimation. Readers can benefit from a state-of-the-art presentation of the latest tools and their usage for understanding earth system processes. Discussions in the book present and stimulate new challenges and questions facing today's earth science and modeling communities. Contents:Observation:Remote Sensing Data Products for Land Surface Data Assimilation System Application (Yunjun Yao, Shunlin Liang and Tongren Xu)Second-Generation Polar-Orbiting Meteorological Satellites of China: The Fengyun 3 Series and Its Applications in Global Monitoring (Peng Zhang)NASA Satellite and Model Land Data Services: Data Access Tutorial (Suhung Shen, Gregory Leptoukh and Hongliang Fang)Modeling:Land Surface Process Study and Modeling in Drylands and High-Elevation Regions (Yingying Chen and Kun Yang)Review of Parameterization and Parameter Estimation for Hydrologic Models (Soroosh Sorooshian and Wei Chu)Data Assimilation:Assimilating Remote Sensing Data into Land Surface Models: Theory and Methods (Xin Li and Yulong Bai)Estimating Model and Observation Error Covariance Information for Land Data Assimilation Systems (Wade T Crow)Inflation Adjustment on Error Covariance Matrices for Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation (Xiaogu Zheng, Guocan Wu, Xiao Liang and Shupeng Zhang)A Review of Error Estimation in Land Data Assimilation Systems (Yulong Bai, Xin Li and Qianlong Chai)An Introduction to Multi-scale Kalman Smoother-Based Framework and Its Application to Data Assimilation (Daniel E Salas and Xu Liang)Application:Overview of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) (Youlong Xia, Brian A Cosgrove, Michael B Ek, Justin Sheffield, Lifeng Luo, Eric F Wood, Kingtse Mo and the NLDAS team)Soil Moisture Data Assimilation for State Initialization of Seasonal Climate Prediction (Wenge Ni-Meister)Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data and Crop Simulation Models for Agricultural Study: Recent Advances and Future Directions (Hongliang Fang, Shunlin Liang and Gerrit Hoogenboom)Simultaneous State-Parameter Estimation for Hydrologic Modeling Using Ensemble Kalman Filter (Xianhong Xie) Readership: Graduate students and scientists in remote sensing, hydrology, ecology, environment and other earth sciences. Keywords:Data Assimilation;Uncertainties;Land Surface Processes;Satellite Data;Dynamic ModelsKey Features:The contribution authors are a group of leading experts international in those areasIt elaborates on the state-of-the-art land data assimilation, from theoretical derivations to current application problemsIt provides the latest development of satellite data and products, and presents novel applications of data assimilation for water cycle, crop monitoring and yield estimation

The Restoration And Management Of Derelict Land

Author: M. H. Wong
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9812382534
Size: 61.39 MB
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This book gives a broad coverage of modern restoration and the management needed after restoration. It deals with relevant topics such as restoration ecology; restoration planning; ecological and ecotoxicological risk assessment; management and adaptive management; restoration in the broader context of sustainable development; as well as case studies and examples related to the Asian region. Major emphasis is placed on the Asian region, but the techniques described in the book can also be applied to other regions. The Restoration and Management of Derelict Land serves as an important reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, decision-makers and engineers in environmental science and management.

Life Cycle Assessment Handbook

Author: Mary Ann Curran
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118528271
Size: 34.22 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The first book of its kind, the LCA Handbook will become an invaluable resource for environmentally progressive manufacturers and suppliers, product and process designers, executives and managers, and government officials who want to learn about this essential component of environmental sustainability.

The Earth As A Cradle For Life

Author: Frank D. Stacey
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814508349
Size: 37.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book takes a long-term view of Earth's development as a habitable planet, incorporating physical, chemical and biological processes on the early Earth, through to human perturbations of the modern world and their implications for life in the future.