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Thanatia The Destiny Of The Earth S Mineral Resources

Author: Antonio Valero Capilla
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814602493
Size: 71.48 MB
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Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today. This book presents a cradle-to-cradle view of the Earth's abiotic resources through a novel and rigorous approach based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat dissipates and materials deteriorate and disperse. Quality is irreversibly lost. This allows for the assessment of such depletion and can be used to estimate the year where production of the main mineral commodities could reach its zenith. By postulating Thanatia, one acquires a sense of destiny and a concern for a unified global management of the planet's abiotic resource endowment. The book covers the core aspects of geology, geochemistry, mining, metallurgy, economics, the environment, thermodynamics and thermochemistry. It is supported by comprehensive databases related to mineral resources, including detailed compositions of the Earth's layers, thermochemical properties of over 300 substances, historical energy and mineral resource inventories, energy consumption and environmental impacts in the mining and metallurgical sector and world recycling rates of commodities. Contents:The Threads: Minerals, Economy and Thermodynamics:The Depletion of Non-Renewable Abiotic ResourcesEconomic versus Thermodynamic AccountingFrom Thermodynamics to Economics and EcologyPhysical Geonomics: A Cradle-Grave-Cradle Approach for Mineral Depletion AssessmentOver the Rainbow: From Nature to Industry:The Geochemistry of the EarthThe Resources of the EarthAn Introduction to Mining and MetallurgyMetallurgy of Key MineralsDown the Rainbow: From Grave to Cradle:Thermodynamics of Mineral ResourcesThanatia and the Crepuscular Earth ModelThe Exergy of the Earth and Its Mineral ResourcesThe Exergy Replacement Costs of Mineral WealthThe Exergy Evolution of Mineral WealthTying the Rainbows: Towards a Rational Management of Resources:Recycling SolutionsThe Challenge of Resource DepletionThe Principles of Resource EfficiencyEpilogue Readership: Thermodynamicists, geologists, economists, policy makers, and mining, environmental and chemical engineers. Keywords:Exergy;Mineral Resources;Depletion;Hubbert Peak;Gibbs Free Energy;Mineralogical Composition of the Earth;ThermodynamicsReviews: "This is an exhaustive treatment of the subject with numerous tables of the baseline date and discussions going from basic thermodynamics to economics and social sciences. It is an essential read for any scientist who is concerned with resource evaluation and how we can best manage these assets and continue to live on an Earth in which we appreciate the service provided by the resource and thus avoid Thanatia in defence of Gaia." John Ludden Executive Director, British Geological Survey “'Thanatia' presents a refreshing way of analysing the run-down of our mineral inheritance … To serious students of the resource problem the numerous tables in 'Thanatia' are useful because they are thought-provoking as much as for the numerical data. 'Thanatia' is a big book, with a wealth of data and background material on the minerals industry, representing many years of intensive investigation and analysis.” Jane H Hodgkinson & Frank D Stacey CSIRO, Australia Authors of The Earth as a Cradle for Life “The unusual title of the book Thanatia (death in Greek) leads its readers to understand what sustainability really means and to quantify the problem of mineral depletion using both disciplines thermodynamics and economics. ” Ph. Vieillard Director of Research C.N.R.S., Poitiers, France

Thanatia

Author: Antonio Valero Capilla
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789814273930
Size: 78.67 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 510
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Is Gaia becoming Thanatia, a resource exhausted planet? For how long can our high-tech society be sustained in the light of declining mineral ore grades, heavy dependence on un-recycled critical metals and accelerated material dispersion? These are all root causes of future disruptions that need to be addressed today. This book presents a cradle-to-cradle view of the Earth's abiotic resources through a novel and rigorous approach based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics: heat dissipates and materials deteriorate and disperse. Quality is irreversibly lost. This allows for the assessment of such depletion and can be used to estimate the year where production of the main mineral commodities could reach its zenith. By postulating Thanatia, one acquires a sense of destiny and a concern for a unified global management of the planet's abiotic resource endowment. The book covers the core aspects of geology, geochemistry, mining, metallurgy, economics, the environment, thermodynamics and thermochemistry. It is supported by comprehensive databases related to mineral resources, including detailed compositions of the Earth's layers, thermochemical properties of over 300 substances, historical energy and mineral resource inventories, energy consumption and environmental impacts in the mining and metallurgical sector and world recycling rates of commodities.

China S Virtual Monopoly Of Rare Earth Elements

Author: Roland Howanietz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351109898
Size: 46.94 MB
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Rare Earth Elements are a group of 17 metals which have a central role in modern industry, increasingly used in the fields of green technologies, high technological consumer goods, industrial and medical appliances and modern weapons systems. Although deposits of Rare Earths are globally dispersed, over 90% of global demand has been provided by Chinese mines since the late 1990s, leading to a situation where China has a virtual monopoly. This book surveys the Rare Earths mining industry, discusses the extent to which Rare Earths really are scarce elsewhere in the world and assesses the economics of production, considering arguments for the rationing of supply, for higher pricing and for a total export embargo. This actually occurred in 2010, demonstrating the vulnerability of the rest of the world to China’s control of these increasingly vital resources.

Exergy For A Better Environment And Improved Sustainability Volume 2

Author: Fethi Aloui
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319625756
Size: 35.92 MB
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This multi-disciplinary book presents the most recent advances in exergy, energy, and environmental issues. Volume 2 focuses on applications and covers current problems, future needs, and prospects in the area of energy and environment from researchers worldwide. Based on selected lectures from the Seventh International Exergy, Energy and Environmental Symposium (IEEES7-2015) and complemented by further invited contributions, this comprehensive set of contributions promote the exchange of new ideas and techniques in energy conversion and conservation in order to exchange best practices in "energetic efficiency". Applications are included that apply to the green transportation and sustainable mobility sectors, especially regarding the development of sustainable technologies for thermal comforts and green transportation vehicles. Furthermore, contributions on renewable and sustainable energy sources, strategies for energy production, and the carbon-free society constitute an important part of this book. Exergy for Better Environment and Sustainablity, Volume 2 will appeal to researchers, students, and professionals within engineering and the renewable energy fields.

Practical Handbook Of Earth Science

Author: Jane H. Hodgkinson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351374702
Size: 57.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This self-contained handbook provides a carefully researched, compact source of key earth science information and data, logically sorted by subject matter, and then cross-referenced. Appealing to both experts and non-experts alike, the book presents earth science and environmental science as closely intertwined. It includes tables of the global distributions of fossil fuels, contrasted by tables of the distribution of non-fossil energy sources. Concise explanations cover the subject matters of geology, geophysics, oceans, atmosphere with attention to environmental implications and resources.

Thermodynamics For Sustainable Management Of Natural Resources

Author: Wojciech Stanek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319486497
Size: 40.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management. Divided into two parts, the first section provides the theoretical background to assessment methods, while the second section provides practical application examples. The topics covered in detail include the theory of exergy cost and thermo-ecological cost, cumulative calculus and life cycle evaluation. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers looking to investigate a range of advanced thermodynamic assessments of the influence of production processes on the depletion of nonrenewable resources.

Sustainability

Author: Corrado Sommariva
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351115804
Size: 50.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book describes mechanisms whereby the Earth naturally thrives towards energy and resources abundance and how unsustainable industrial practices alter this trend. The role of technology in addressing sustainably mankind demand for affluence reversing the environmental damage are illustrated along with the feasibility of the related economics.

The Earth As A Cradle For Life

Author: Frank D. Stacey
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814508349
Size: 11.22 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book takes a long-term view of Earth's development as a habitable planet, incorporating physical, chemical and biological processes on the early Earth, through to human perturbations of the modern world and their implications for life in the future.

Life Cycle Assessment Handbook

Author: Mary Ann Curran
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118528271
Size: 28.45 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The first book of its kind, the LCA Handbook will become an invaluable resource for environmentally progressive manufacturers and suppliers, product and process designers, executives and managers, and government officials who want to learn about this essential component of environmental sustainability.

Exergy

Author: Silvio de Oliveira Junior
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447141652
Size: 29.22 MB
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Bridging the gap between concepts derived from Second Law of Thermodynamics and their application to Engineering practice, the property exergy and the exergy balance can be a tool for analyzing and improving the performance of energy conversion processes. With the exergy analysis it is possible to evaluate the performance of energy conversion processes not only on a thermodynamics basis but also by including production costs and environmental aspects and impacts of the studied processes. This comprehensive approach of the use of energy has, as one of the most important feature, the identification of sustainable ways of energy resources utilization. Based on the fundamentals of the exergy concept, its calculation, graphical representations and exergy balances evaluation, Exergy: Production Cost And Renewability describes the application of detailed exergy and thermoeconomic analysis to power plants and polygeneration systems, petroleum production and refining plants (including hydrogen production), chemical plants, biofuel production routes, combined production of ethanol and electricity, aircraft systems design, environmental impact mitigation processes and human body behavior. The presented case studies aim at providing students, researchers and engineers with guidelines to the utilization of the exergy and thermoeconomic analysis to model, simulate and optimize real processes and industrial plants.