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The Black Laws In The Old Northwest

Author: Stephen Middleton
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313280169
Size: 29.15 MB
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This book brings together the Black Laws of the Old Northwest (now the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin) for the first time, thereby providing a documentary history of racial discrimination in this free territory. The documents in the volume include statutes, legislative reports and resolutions, and petitions and memorials produced by the state legislatures, government agencies, or concerned citizens. After a brief prologue, the documents are organized by state. Within each state they are placed in sets of documents of specific topics such as immigration laws, welfare and public education laws, and jury and testimony laws.

Slavery Freedom And Expansion In The Early American West

Author: John Craig Hammond
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 9780813926698
Size: 73.41 MB
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Most treatments of slavery, politics, and expansion in the early American republic focus narrowly on congressional debates and the inaction of elite "founding fathers" such as Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. In Slavery, Freedom, and Expansion in the Early American West, John Craig Hammond looks beyond elite leadership and examines how the demands of western settlers, the potential of western disunion, and local, popular politics determined the fate of slavery and freedom in the West between 1790 and 1820. By shifting focus away from high politics in Philadelphia and Washington, Hammond demonstrates that local political contests and geopolitical realities were more responsible for determining slavery’s fate in the West than were the clashing proslavery and antislavery proclivities of Founding Fathers and politicians in the East. When efforts to prohibit slavery revived in 1819 with the Missouri Controversy it was not because of a sudden awakening to the problem on the part of northern Republicans, but because the threat of western secession no longer seemed credible. Including detailed studies of popular political contests in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Missouri that shed light on the western and popular character of conflicts over slavery, Hammond also provides a thorough analysis of the Missouri Controversy, revealing how the problem of slavery expansion shifted from a local and western problem to a sectional and national dilemma that would ultimately lead to disunion and civil war.

Time In The Black Experience

Author: Joseph K. Adjaye
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313291180
Size: 10.76 MB
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The first work to deal entirely with temporal perceptions among Africans and those of African descent in America with discussions of cosmology, genealogy, colonialism, agriculture, slavery, religion, and linguistics.

Public Policy And The Black Hospital

Author: Mitchell F. Rice
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313263095
Size: 73.32 MB
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This study adds to the small but growing literature on Black health history--the rise of hospital care and hospital services provided to Blacks from the antebellum era to the integration era, a period of some 150 years. The work examines the political, policy, legal, and philanthropic forces that helped to define the rise, development, and decline of Black hospitals in the United States. Particular discussion is given to the federal Hill-Burton Act of 1946 and the extent to which the legislation impacted Black hospital development. The roles of the Freedman's Bureau, National Medical Association, National Hospital Association, and the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights in the development of Black hospitals is highlighted.

From Oligarchy To Republicanism

Author: Forrest A. Nabors
Publisher: University of Missouri Press
ISBN: 0826273912
Size: 25.68 MB
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On December 4, 1865, members of the 39th United States Congress walked into the Capitol Building to begin their first session after the end of the Civil War. They understood their responsibility to put the nation back on the path established by the American Founding Fathers. The moment when the Republicans in the Reconstruction Congress remade the nation and renewed the law is in a class of rare events. The Civil War should be seen in this light. In From Oligarchy to Republicanism: The Great Task of Reconstruction, Forrest A. Nabors shows that the ultimate goal of the Republican Party, the war, and Reconstruction was the same. This goal was to preserve and advance republicanism as the American founders understood it, against its natural, existential enemy: oligarchy. The principle of natural equality justified American republicanism and required abolition and equal citizenship. Likewise, slavery and discrimination on the basis of color stand on the competing moral foundation of oligarchy, the principle of natural inequality, which requires ranks. The effect of slavery and the division of the nation into two “opposite systems of civilization” are causally linked. Charles Devens, a lawyer who served as a general in the Union Army, and his contemporaries understood that slavery’s existence transformed the character of political society. One of those dramatic effects was the increased power of slaveowners over those who did not have slaves. When the slave state constitutions enumerated slaves in apportioning representation using the federal three-fifths ratio or by other formulae, intra-state sections where slaves were concentrated would receive a substantial grant of political power for slave ownership. In contrast, low slave-owning sections of the state would lose political representation and political influence over the state. This contributed to the non-slaveholders’ loss of political liberty in the slave states and provided a direct means by which the slaveholders acquired and maintained their rule over non-slaveholders. This book presents a shared analysis of the slave South, synthesized from the writings and speeches of the Republicans who served in the Thirty-Eighth, Thirty-Ninth or Fortieth Congress from 1863-1869. The account draws from their writings and speeches dated before, during, and after their service in Congress. Nabors shows how the Republican majority, charged with the responsibility of reconstructing the South, understood the South. Republicans in Congress were generally united around the fundamental problem and goal of Reconstruction. They regarded their work in the same way as they regarded the work of the American founders. Both they and the founders were engaged in regime change, from monarchy in the one case, and from oligarchy in the other, to republicanism. The insurrectionary states’ governments had to be reconstructed at their foundations, from oligarchic to republican. The sharp differences within Congress pertained to how to achieve that higher goal.

History And Hunger In West Africa

Author: Laura Bigman
Publisher: Praeger Pub Text
ISBN:
Size: 32.57 MB
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As Africa entered the 1990s, the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission on Africa declared the continent incapable of feeding at least one-fifth of its peoples. Africa is the only region in the world where per capita food production is actually declining. Even with imports, the average African gets only enough nourishment to meet 85 percent of the minimum daily calorie requirement. This book analyzes the contemporary food crisis in Africa from an historical perspective, using two West African case studies. From the perspective of food production and entitlement, the volume traces the economic history of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde beginning with the slave trade, through the colonial and postcolonial periods to democratization and structural adjustment. Using the theory and methodology of political economy, the study argues that the way in which African societies have been integrated into the world market diverted resources from food production, exacerbated exploitation, thus affecting entitlement to the food produced. Conditions for national food dependency and the degradation of the environment ensued.

Financing Health Care In Sub Saharan Africa

Author: Ronald J. Vogel
Publisher: Praeger Pub Text
ISBN:
Size: 80.21 MB
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Vogel views health care within the context of total Sub-Saharan economic systems, emphasizing the output of health-care programs (i.e., healthier people) and the most cost-effective ways to maximize that output. He recommends shifting public financing resources from the hospital sector to primary and preventive care, in order to reposition financial resources away from the colonial and post-colonial period of concentration upon cost-ineffective hospitals and toward the direction emphasized by the World Health Organization.