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The Bridge To Organic Chemistry

Author: Claude H. Yoder
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118017081
Size: 52.36 MB
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Make the leap from introductory to organic chemistry The transition from first-year chemistry to an organic chemistry course can be a challenge for many students. Not only must they recall their first-year studies of bonding, structure, and reactivity, but they must also master a whole new set of nomenclature, along with the critical skill of "electron-pushing." Reviewing the fundamentals and carefully introducing the important new concepts, The Bridge to Organic Chemistry: Concepts and Nomenclature helps students smoothly bridge the gap to organic chemistry. Concise and carefully structured, The Bridge to Organic Chemistry helps students strengthen their mastery of fundamental concepts from an introductory chemistry course and then introduces them to the new concepts of organic chemistry. Step by step, the reader will: Review important concepts such as structural isomerism, Lewis formulas, hybridization, and resonance and understand their roles in modern organic chemistry Learn organic nomenclature along with the critical skill of "electron-pushing" Explore mechanisms that utilize many of the concepts: Lewis acid-base chemistry, rate laws, enthalpy changes, bond energies and electronegativities, substituent effects, structure, stereochemistry, and the visualization of electron flow through the electron-pushing model With a clear progressive style and substantial review at each step, The Bridge to Organic Chemistry puts organic chemistry and its nomenclature within the grasp of every student.

Organic Chemistry

Author: Michael B. Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420079212
Size: 74.97 MB
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Based on the premise that many, if not most, reactions in organic chemistry can be explained by variations of fundamental acid-base concepts, Organic Chemistry: An Acid–Base Approach provides a framework for understanding the subject that goes beyond mere memorization. The individual steps in many important mechanisms rely on acid–base reactions, and the ability to see these relationships makes understanding organic chemistry easier. Using several techniques to develop a relational understanding, this textbook helps students fully grasp the essential concepts at the root of organic chemistry. Providing a practical learning experience with numerous opportunities for self-testing, the book contains: Checklists of what students need to know before they begin to study a topic Checklists of concepts to be fully understood before moving to the next subject area Homework problems directly tied to each concept at the end of each chapter Embedded problems with answers throughout the material Experimental details and mechanisms for key reactions The reactions and mechanisms contained in the book describe the most fundamental concepts that are used in industry, biological chemistry and biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacy. The concepts presented constitute the fundamental basis of life processes, making them critical to the study of medicine. Reflecting this emphasis, most chapters end with a brief section that describes biological applications for each concept. This text provides students with the skills to proceed to the next level of study, offering a fundamental understanding of acids and bases applied to organic transformations and organic molecules.

Organic Chemistry Enhanced Edition

Author: William Brown
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 0538496754
Size: 57.35 MB
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Featuring a revolutionary new approach to teaching mechanisms that will lead your students to an immediate understanding of each new reaction, this Enhanced Fifth Edition of ORGANIC CHEMISTRY offers numerous biological examples and applied problems, increased coverage of bioorganic chemistry, expanded in-text learning tools, and a new Appendix that shows students how to overcome typical mistakes in arrow pushing. Ideal for students majoring in chemistry as well as in the health and biological sciences, the Enhanced Fifth Edition builds upon the text's hallmarks of unified mechanistic themes, focused problem-solving, use of applied problems from the pharmaceutical field, challenging synthesis problems and medicinal chemistry problems, and unrivaled visuals. To reflect the latest developments from the field, the book now covers the organic chemistry of sulfur and phosphorus. The book's revolutionary approach to teaching mechanisms begins in Chapter 6, with detailed explanations of mechanism elements, including when they are appropriate to use. From then on, reaction mechanisms are described as combinations of these individual mechanism elements. Throughout the book, reaction mechanisms are offset in a clear, stepwise fashion, and similarities between related mechanisms are emphasized. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Vocabulary And Concepts Of Organic Chemistry

Author: Milton Orchin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471713732
Size: 44.45 MB
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This book is a basic reference providing concise, accurate definitions of the key terms and concepts of organic chemistry. Not simply a listing of organic compounds, structures, and nomenclatures, the book is organized into topical chapters in which related terms and concepts appear in close proximity to one another, giving context to the information and helping to make fine distinctions more understandable. Areas covered include: bonding, symmetry, stereochemistry, types of organic compounds, reactions, mechansims, spectroscopy, and photochemistry.

Organic Chemistry 7th Ed Brown Iverson Anslyn Foote Wardsworth Cengage Learning 2014

Author: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 47.40 MB
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InTroduCTIon This seventh edition of Organic Chemistry significantly extends the transformation started in the sixth edition. Students taking an organic chemistry course have two objectives: the first is to learn organic chemistry, and the second is to establish the intellectual foundation for other molecular science courses. Most often, these other courses involve biochemistry or specialized topics such as materials science. This textbook addresses these two objectives head-on by first presenting mechanistic and synthetic organic chemistry geared toward giving students a fundamental understanding of organic molecules and reactions as well as their mechanisms and uses in organic synthesis. The text then builds on the fundamentals by emphasizing bridging concepts that will prepare students for subsequent science courses. Several studying and learning features of this text include comprehensive end-of-chapter summaries, a unique paradigm for learning mechanisms, and an enhanced learning tool called Organic Chemistry Reaction Roadmaps. A FrESH Look AT MECHAnISMS This edition refines a revolutionary paradigm for learning organic chemistry mechanisms. Students are introduced to a small set of individual mechanism elements in a special primer section preceding Chapter 6. In addition, a new special primer section just before Chapter 18 describes how to apply this unique approach to construct the mechanisms for the reactions of carboxylic acid derivatives, historically the make-or-break point for students learning to develop and understand complex reaction mechanisms in the organic chemistry course. In both of these new special sections, the mechanism elements are explained in detail, including when they are appropriate to use. Reaction mechanisms throughout the rest of the book are described as combinations of these individual mechanism elements, which are written in stepwise fashion. This new approach not only simplifies the learning of mechanisms for students but also makes it easier to recognize similarities and differences between related reactions. Most important, it makes the prediction of reaction mechanisms simpler, analogous to a multiple-choice situation in which the correct mechanism element is chosen from a menu of choices. Also, Appendix 10, “Common Mistakes in Arrow Pushing,” gives students more hints on writing mechanisms. To reinforce the mechanism element approach, the uniting concept of nucleophiles reacting with electrophiles is highlighted. Especially helpful is the use of electrostatic potential surface models of reacting molecules. These maps emphasize, in an easily interpreted, color-coded fashion, how the majority of reactions involve areas of higher electron density on one reactant (a nucleophile) interacting with areas of lower electron density on the other reactant (an electrophile). Preface Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Preface xxiv A FrESH Look AT SynTHESIS: orgAnIC CHEMISTry roAdMAPS, An InnoVATIVE And PoWErFuL WAy To VISuALIzE orgAnIC rEACTIonS In this seventh edition, we refine an innovation to organic chemistry learning that we refer to as the Organic Chemistry Reaction Roadmap. It is a graphical representation of the different organic reactions taught in the context of the important functional groups. The functional groups of an organic chemistry roadmap are analogous to cities on a real roadmap, and the reactions are like the roads between those cities. Arrows are used to represent known routes between functional groups, and the reagents required to bring about each reaction are written next to the corresponding arrow. Multistep synthesis questions are often very challenging for organic chemistry students even though synthesis is at the core of organic chemistry as a discipline. The power of the organic chemistry reaction roadmap is that it helps students visualize the reactions to interconvert key functional groups in multistep synthesis problems. The construction and use of organic chemistry reaction roadmaps are introduced in the end-of-chapter problems beginning in Chapter 6 and presented in complete form in a new Appendix 11, which students can tear out and use next to a problem. A FrESH Look AT orBITALS An organic chemist’s theoretical framework for understanding electron density within molecules is based on atomic and molecular orbitals. Paradoxically, organic chemistry texts generally provide only passing coverage of orbitals, never revealing their true shapes or full significance. The seventh edition paints a detailed picture of the orbital nature of electron density in Chapter 1 by focusing on the interplay between the two complementary approaches to orbital descriptions: valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory. Chapter 1 provides a comprehensive description of how organic chemists use electronic theory to understand structure, bonding, and reactivity. Significantly, students are given easy-to-use guidelines that detail when and how to use electronic theory, even in complex situations, such as molecules described by multiple resonance contributing structures. The inclusion of calculated orbital diagrams alongside the familiar orbital cartoons gives students a greater appreciation for orbital sizes and shapes that are reinforced throughout the book. The intent is to provide students with a strong theoretical foundation that will give them unprecedented insight and intuition into molecular structure and reactivity. A FrESH Look AT MCAT PrEPArATIon A significant number of students taking organic chemistry are doing so to prepare for standardized tests such as the MCAT, DAT, or PCAT. Often, organic chemistry content on the MCAT is in the form of passages followed by a series of multiple-choice questions. Learning to answer questions based on passages requires students to develop increased reading comprehension and analytical skills. The seventh edition of Organic Chemistry is the first text to aid students in developing these skills by introducing an extensive series of passages followed by several thoughtprovoking multiple-choice questions in almost every chapter (MCAT Practice: Passage and Questions). The passages cover interesting applications of organic chemistry principles as well as biological and chemical topics. Thus, far from being just test preparation, these passages add considerable enrichment to the material being presented. ROADMAP REACTION Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Preface xxv Organic chemistry applied tO the synthesis Of cOmplex mOlecules Organic chemistry enables the synthesis of thousands of useful molecules. Synthetic applications of the reactions covered in this text are emphasized throughout, partly through the many new challenging synthesis problems, the goal of which is to demonstrate to students how synthetic organic chemistry is used in pharmaceutical research and in the production of useful pharmaceuticals. The text provides applications of the reactions to the synthesis of important molecules, such as Valium, fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), albuterol (Proventil), tamoxifen, and sildefanil (Viagra). Multistep synthesis problems challenge students to develop their own multistep synthetic plan for converting a relatively simple starting material into a more complex target molecule. Multistep synthesis is supported by an expanded description of retrosynthetic analysis in multiple chapters, including tips on recognizing when to use certain reactions, such as those involving enolates in the construction of complex structures. Organic chemistry applied tO BiOlOgy The application of organic chemistry principles to important biological molecules is integrated where appropriate to establish a bridge with biochemistry courses. In particular, Connections to Biological Chemistry gives special attention to those aspects of organic chemistry that are essential to understanding the chemistry of living systems. For example, the organic chemistry of amino acids is highlighted beginning in Section 3.8, along with the importance of alkene geometry to both membrane fluidity and nutrition. How hydrogen bonding is involved with drug-receptor interactions (Section 10.2) is discussed. Importantly, these Connections to Biological Chemistry features have been added throughout the book, not just at the end, because not all instructors make it through the biological chemistry chapters at the end of the text. Relevance to practical application is also emphasized in an expanded array of essays titled Chemical Connections. Topics include medicines such as penicillins and cephalosporins (MCAT Practice: Section 18.8), food supplements such as antioxidants (Section 8.7), and materials science concepts such as spider silk (Chemical Connections: Section 27.6). These sections provide a bridge between the theory of organic chemistry and well-known, current, practical applications. A list of the Chemical Connections as well as Connections to Biological Chemistry essays can be found on the inside back cover of this text. mastering skills Mastering organic chemistry requires the development of certain intellectual skills. To this end, 15 How To boxes highlight “survival skills” for organic chemistry students. Five new How To boxes to this edition are How To Quickly Figure Out Formal Charge, How To Quickly Recognize the Hybridization and Geometry of Atoms, How To Quickly Draw and Recognize Enantiomers and Diastereomers, How To Retrosynthetically Dissect an Amine into the Proper Starting Materials for a Reductive Amination, and How To Recognize Aromatic Compounds: Criteria and Caveats. helping students prepare mOre efficiently A key feature of the seventh edition is the end-of-chapter summaries, which are mini study guides designed to help students prepare for class exams and later for standardized tests such as the MCAT. When preparing for exams, students will benefit from the bulleted lists of important concepts with highlighted keywords. These mini study guides Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Preface xxvi make it easier for students to identify difficult-to-grasp material by referring them to the section of the text for a full explanation and then providing them with end-of-chapter problems that test and reinforce their comprehension. As a companion to the summary outlines, end-of-chapter summaries of key reactions systematically list the reactions covered in each chapter. These include prose descriptions of mechanisms as well as important information such as observed stereochemistry or regiochemistry. Students will find these reaction summaries particularly efficient when preparing for exam questions requiring application of reactions in the context of new molecules or even multistep syntheses. The appendix reference material has been enhanced with two unique items to provide students with a quickly accessible source of important information. The first is a thorough “Summary of Stereochemical Terms” (Appendix 8). Stereochemical terms are subtle and difficult to master, so having them compiled in one location allows students to compare and contrast any new terms with those learned in earlier chapters, as well as prepare for exams. In addition, Appendix 9, “Summary of the Rules of Nomenclature,” provides a practical listing of the nomenclature rules described throughout the text. In response to student requests, this appendix provides a single location for the rules students need when naming complex molecules that contain multiple functional groups. unIQuE orgAnIzATIonAL ELEMEnTS ● Together, Chapter 1 (comprehensive description of electronic theory) and Chapter 4 (detailed description of acids and bases in organic chemistry) provide a fundamental grasp of molecular structure and properties, giving students the basis to understand all aspects of the mechanistic discussions that follow. Equipping students with the proper tools from the beginning will give them a predictive command of reactivity and foster chemical intuition, while discouraging superficial memorization. ● Because of the increased use of NMR spectroscopy in chemical and biochemical research, as well as the growing dependence on MRI for medical diagnosis, Chapter 13, “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,” is detailed and up to date. The practical and theoretical aspects concerning NMR spectra and signal splitting patterns are highlighted, and a complete description of FT-NMR provides a stronger technical connection to MRI. ● Carbonyl chemistry (Chapters 16–19) is placed earlier than in most texts so that professors have time to teach this material to the majority of students in an organic chemistry class, who are geared toward a life science degree and/or career in the health professions. Carbonyl chemistry is fundamental to the chemistry of living systems, and connections between carbonyl chemistry and the chemistry of carbohydrates is highlighted earlier in the book. This latter change mirrors the increasing importance of carbohydrate chemistry on the MCAT. ● Chapter 24, “Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation,” combines content from previous chapters and challenges students to devise syntheses. The intent is to expose students to the excitement and challenge of modern synthetic chemistry. WHAT’S nEW In this edition, we made major changes to provide a better theoretical understanding of organic chemistry as well as to provide better tools to prepare for exams. ● Two new primer sections were added to better prepare students to understand, as opposed to simply memorize, reaction mechanisms. The first, “Primer I: Reaction Mechanisms,” added prior to Chapter 6, introduces the concept of fundamental mechanistic elements and explains how to predict which mechanistic element is appropriate for a given step in the reaction mechanism being considered. This revolutionary approach promotes student understanding of the similarities and differences between different reactions, and perhaps more important, leads students to an intuitive understanding of how molecules react. Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Preface xxvii ● “Primer II, Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reaction Mechanisms” was added just prior to Chapter 18, the chapter describing the reactions of carboxylic acid derivatives. This is a critical chapter for students because the reaction mechanisms of carboxylic acids have numerous steps with only subtle differences among them. Students who approach mechanisms by trying to memorize them generally do very poorly with this material. On the other hand, by reintroducing the unifying mechanistic element approach in front of this chapter, students are given the appropriate foundation to develop an intuitive understanding of carboxylic acid derivative mechanisms. ● Acknowledging that a significant number of students take organic chemistry courses as preparation for standardized exams such as the MCAT, this new edition is the first and only text on the market to contain MCAT-style passages and accompanying multiple-choice questions in almost every chapter. A significant portion of the organic chemistry section of the MCAT involves passages about intentionally new material that is related to concepts with which students should be familiar, followed by a series of multiple-choice questions intended to test students’ reading comprehension and analytical skills. These new passages not only introduce interesting applications of the material presented in the chapters but also provide students with the reading comprehension and analytical skills they need to do well in the organic chemistry passages sections of the MCAT exam. ● Organic chemistry reaction roadmaps were completely redrawn and highly refined in this edition. This innovation in organic chemistry learning gives students a visual representation of the different reactions and shows how these roadmaps can be used in specific sequences for the multistep synthesis of complex molecules. ● The description of several more modern synthetic methods were added, including the Swern, Dess-Martin, and Pinnick oxidations. SPECIAL FEATurES ● New A revolutionary new paradigm for learning organic chemistry mechanisms is introduced in “Primer I: Reaction Mechanisms” just prior to Chapter 6 and then used throughout the book. ● New The new mechanism paradigm for learning organic chemistry mechanisms is reviewed and applied to the mechanisms for carboxylic acid derivatives in a second all-new “Primer II, Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reaction Mechanisms” just prior to Chapter 18. ● New Several more modern synthetic methods were added, such as the Swern, Dess-Martin, and Pinnick oxidations. ● New MCAT Practice: Passage and Questions are incorporated into almost every chapter. These new passages and questions not only introduce interesting applications of the material presented in the chapters but also provide students with the reading comprehension and analytical skills they need to do well in the organic chemistry passages sections of the MCAT exam. ● Updated Organic Chemistry Reaction Roadmaps were completely redrawn to make them even more useful as an innovation in learning organic chemistry. Organic chemistry roadmaps are presented in end-of-chapter problems and in the newly designed Appendix 11 tear-out. ● Updated Accurate Orbital Diagrams were added throughout the text to provide students with a more realistic understanding of electronic theory as applied to organic chemistry. ● Updated Chemical Connections These essays illustrate applications of organic chemistry to everyday settings. Topics range from Chiral Drugs to Drugs That Lower Plasma Levels of Cholesterol and The Chemistry of Superglue. A complete list can be found on the inside back cover. Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Preface xxviii ● Updated Connections to Biological Chemistry Application of organic chemistry to biology is emphasized throughout the text in the Connections to Biological Chemistry essays and in end-of-chapter problems. See the inside back cover for a complete list. New essays include pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and electron transfer agents in biological oxidation-reduction reactions. ● Updated Fifteen How To features of key tools and topics are included. These describe “survival skills” for the organic chemistry student. Five How To boxes are new to this edition. ● Updated In-Chapter Examples There are an abundance of in-chapter examples, each with a detailed solution, so that students can immediately see how the concepts just discussed relate to specific questions and their answers. Following each inchapter example is a comparable in-chapter problem designed to give students the opportunity to solve a related problem on their own. ● Updated End-of-Chapter Summaries highlight, in outline form, all of the important ideas of the chapter. Each concept is keyed to the section in the chapter that provides a full explanation, as well as to the problems that reinforce understanding. ● Updated End-of-Chapter Summaries of Key Reactions list the reactions described in the chapter, complete with a prose description of the mechanism and important considerations such as stereochemistry and regiochemistry. ● Updated End-of-Chapter Problems There are plentiful end-of-chapter problems, with the majority categorized by topic. A red problem number indicates an applied, real-world problem. There are numerous multistep synthesis problems, many dealing with the synthesis of important pharmaceuticals, and Reactions in Context problems dealing with functional group transformations of more complex molecules. ● Updated Glossary of Key Terms Throughout the book, definitions for new terms are placed in the margin for easy reference. In addition, all definitions are collected in a handy glossary at the end of the text and keyed to the section where the term is introduced. ● Updated Precise Stereochemical Definitions are compiled in a unique appendix. A comprehensive listing of stereochemical terms in a single collection provides students with a resource they can refer to often as they encounter new terms. ● Updated A Unique Nomenclature Appendix This appendix provides a comprehensive listing of all the rules introduced in the text governing nomenclature of complex molecules. ● Updated A Unique Arrow Pushing Appendix In this appendix, the correct use of arrow pushing is emphasized and students are encouraged to avoid common mistakes. ● Updated Full-Color Art Program One of the most distinctive features of this text is its visual impact. The text’s extensive full-color art program includes a large number of molecular models generated with a three-dimensional look, as well as applied photos. In addition, special colors are used to highlight parts of molecules and to follow the course of reactions. ● Updated Electrostatic Potential Maps are provided at appropriate places throughout the text to illustrate the important concepts of resonance, electrophilicity, and nucleophilicity. SuPPorTIng MATErIALS Please visit www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown/organic7e for information about student and instructor resources for this text. Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 xxix This book is the product of collaboration of many individuals—some obvious, others not so obvious. It is with gratitude that we herein acknowledge the contributions of the many. Chris Simpson as acquisitions editor has masterfully guided the revision of the text. Sandi Kiselica has been a rock of support as developmental editor. We so appreciate her ability to set challenging but manageable schedules for us and then her constant encouragement as we worked to meet those deadlines. Others at the Cengage Learning organization have helped to shape our words into this text, including Teresa Trego, content project manager; Maria Epes, art director; and Lisa Weber, media editor. Erin Donahue of PreMediaGlobal served as our production editor. Also, many thanks to Jordan Fantini of Denison University, who read all of the page proofs for this book with an eye for accuracy. We are also indebted to the many reviewers of our manuscript who helped shape its contents. With their guidance, we have revised this text to better meet the needs of our and their students. Seventh Edition Philip Albiniak Ball State University Andrew Frazer University of Central Florida Katie Hailer Montana Tech Eric Helms State University of New York College at Geneseo Patrick Jokiel The College of New Jersey Steven Kass University of Minnesota Susan Klein Manchester College Thuy Le The College of New Jersey Deborah Lieberman University of Cincinnati Barbara Mayer California State University, Fresno Donna Nelson University of Oklahoma Hasan Palandoken California Polytechnic State University Lucas Tucker Siena College Sixth Edition Thomas Albright University of Houston Zachary D. Aron Indiana University Valerie Ashby University of North Carolina B. Mikael Bergdahl San Diego State University Robert Boikess Rutgers University Jean Chmielewski Purdue University Elizabeth Harbron The College of William and Mary Acknowledgments Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Unless otherwise noted all art on this page © Cengage Learning 2013 Acknowledgments xxx Arif Karim University of California, Los Angeles Susan King University of California, Irvine Mark Lipton Purdue University Allan Pinhas University of Cincinnati Owen Priest Northwestern University Jonathan Stoddard California State University, Fullerton Fifth Edition Jon Antilla University of Southern Florida Christopher Bielawski University of Texas Alan Campion University of Texas David Cartrette South Dakota State University H. J. Peter de Lijser California State University, Fullerton Malcolm Forbes University of North Carolina John Grutzner Purdue University Robert C. Kerber SUNY, Stony Brook Spencer Knapp Rutgers University Paul Kropp University of North Carolina Deborah Lieberman University of Cincinnati James Mack University of Cincinnati Felix Ngassa Grand Valley State University Milton Orchin University of Cincinnati Allan Pinhas University of Cincinnati Suzanne Ruder Virginia Commonwealth University Laurie Starkey California State Polytechnic University, Pomona Qian Wang University of South Carolina Alexander Wei Purdue University Laurie Witucki Grand Valley State University Lei Zhu Florida State University Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.