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The Challenge Of Anticipation

Author: Giovanni Pezzulo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540877010
Size: 50.37 MB
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The general idea that brains anticipate the future, that they engage in prediction, and that one means of doing this is through some sort of inner model that can be run of?ine,hasalonghistory. SomeversionoftheideawascommontoAristotle,aswell as to many medieval scholastics, to Leibniz and Hume, and in more recent times, to Kenneth Craik and Philip Johnson-Laird. One reason that this general idea recurs continually is that this is the kind of picture that introspection paints. When we are engaged in tasks it seems that we form images that are predictions, or anticipations, and that these images are isomorphic to what they represent. But as much as the general idea recurs, opposition to it also recurs. The idea has never been widely accepted, or uncontroversial among psychologists, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists. The main reason has been that science cannot be s- is?ed with metaphors and introspection. In order to gain acceptance, an idea needs to be formulated clearly enough so that it can be used to construct testable hypot- ses whose results will clearly supportor cast doubtupon the hypothesis. Next, those ideasthatare formulablein one oranothersortof symbolismor notationare capable of being modeled, and modeling is a huge part of cognitive neuroscience. If an idea cannot be clearly modeled, then there are limits to how widely it can be tested and accepted by a cognitive neuroscience community.

Trust Theory

Author: Christiano Castelfranchi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470519844
Size: 14.71 MB
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This book provides an introduction, discussion, and formal-based modelling of trust theory and its applications in agent-based systems This book gives an accessible explanation of the importance of trust in human interaction and, in general, in autonomous cognitive agents including autonomous technologies. The authors explain the concepts of trust, and describe a principled, general theory of trust grounded on cognitive, cultural, institutional, technical, and normative solutions. This provides a strong base for the author’s discussion of role of trust in agent-based systems supporting human-computer interaction and distributed and virtual organizations or markets (multi-agent systems). Key Features: Provides an accessible introduction to trust, and its importance and applications in agent-based systems Proposes a principled, general theory of trust grounding on cognitive, cultural, institutional, technical, and normative solutions. Offers a clear, intuitive approach, and systematic integration of relevant issues Explains the dynamics of trust, and the relationship between trust and security Offers operational definitions and models directly applicable both in technical and experimental domains Includes a critical examination of trust models in economics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and AI This book will be a valuable reference for researchers and advanced students focused on information and communication technologies (computer science, artificial intelligence, organizational sciences, and knowledge management etc.), as well as Web-site and robotics designers, and for scholars working on human, social, and cultural aspects of technology. Professionals of ecommerce systems and peer-to-peer systems will also find this text of interest.

Artificial Cognitive Systems

Author: David Vernon
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028387
Size: 32.65 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the emerging field of artificial cognitive systems. Cognition, both natural and artificial, is about anticipating the need for action and developing the capacity to predict the outcome of those actions. Drawing on artificial intelligence, developmental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, the field of artificial cognitive systems has as its ultimate goal the creation of computer-based systems that can interact with humans and serve society in a variety of ways. This primer brings together recent work in cognitive science and cognitive robotics to offer readers a solid grounding on key issues.The book first develops a working definition of cognitive systems -- broad enough to encompass multiple views of the subject and deep enough to help in the formulation of theories and models. It surveys the cognitivist, emergent, and hybrid paradigms of cognitive science and discusses cognitive architectures derived from them. It then turns to the key issues, with chapters devoted to autonomy, embodiment, learning and development, memory and prospection, knowledge and representation, and social cognition. Ideas are introduced in an intuitive, natural order, with an emphasis on the relationships among ideas and building to an overview of the field. The main text is straightforward and succinct; sidenotes drill deeper on specific topics and provide contextual links to further reading.

Unified Theories Of Cognition

Author: Allen Newell
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674921016
Size: 71.82 MB
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Psychology is now ready for unified theories of cognition--so says Allen Newell, a leading investigator in computer science and cognitive psychology. Not everyone will agree on a single set of mechanisms that will explain the full range of human cognition, but such theories are within reach and we should strive to articulate them. In this book, Newell makes the case for unified theories by setting forth a candidate. After reviewing the foundational concepts of cognitive science--knowledge, representation, computation, symbols, architecture, intelligence, and search--Newell introduces Soar, an architecture for general cognition. A pioneer system in artificial intelligence, Soar is the first problem solver to create its own subgoals and learn continuously from its own experience. Newell shows how Soar's ability to operate within the real-time constraints of intelligent behavior, such as immediate-response and item-recognition tasks, illustrates important characteristics of the human cognitive structure. Throughout, Soar remains an exemplar: we know only enough to work toward a fully developed theory of cognition, but Soar's success so far establishes the viability of the enterprise. Given its integrative approach, Unified Theories of Cognition will be of tremendous interest to researchers in a variety of fields, including cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology, and computer science. This exploration of the nature of mind, one of the great problems of philosophy, should also transcend disciplines and attract a large scientific audience.

Principles Of Synthetic Intelligence

Author: Joscha Bach
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199708109
Size: 12.25 MB
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From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.

Debates About Neuroethics

Author: Eric Racine
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319546511
Size: 22.34 MB
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This is the first book entirely dedicated to exploring issues associated with the nature of neuroethics. It reflects on some of the underlying assumptions in neuroethics, and the implications of those assumptions with respect to training and education programs, research activities, policy engagement, public discourse, teaching, ethics consultation and mentoring, to name but a few areas of interest. Internationally respected and emerging leaders in the area have taken up the pen to express and debate their views about the development, focus and future of neuroethics. They share their analyses and make recommendations regarding how neuroscience could more effectively explore and tackle its philosophical, ethical, and societal implications.

Better Ehr

Author: Jiajie Zhang (Professor of biomedical informatics)
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780692262962
Size: 61.51 MB
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Electronic Health Records (EHR) offer great potential to increase healthcare efficiency, improve patient safety, and reduce health costs. The adoption of EHRs among office-based physicians in the US has increased from 20% ten years ago to over 80% in 2014. Among acute care hospitals in US, the adoption rate today is approaching 100%. Finding relevant patient information in electronic health records' (EHRs) large datasets is difficult, especially when organized only by data type and time. Automated clinical summarization creates condition-specific displays, promising improved clinician efficiency. However, automated summarization requires new kinds of clinical knowledge (e.g., problem-medication relationships).

Anticipatory Systems

Author: Robert Rosen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461412684
Size: 37.62 MB
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Robert Rosen was not only a biologist, he was also a brilliant mathematician whose extraordinary contributions to theoretical biology were tremendous. Founding, with this book, the area of Anticipatory Systems Theory is a remarkable outcome of his work in theoretical biology. This second edition of his book Anticipatory Systems, has been carefully revised and edited, and includes an Introduction by Judith Rosen. It has also been expanded with a set of Prolegomena by Dr. Mihai Nadin, who offers an historical survey of this fast growing field since the original work was published. There is also some exciting new work, in the form of an additional chapter on the Ontology of Anticipation, by Dr. John Kineman. An addendum-- with autobiographical reminiscences by Robert Rosen, himself, and a short story by Judith Rosen about her father-- adds a personal touch. This work, now available again, serves as the guiding foundations for the growing field of Anticipatory Systems and, indeed, any area of science that deals with living organisms in some way, including the study of Life and Mind. It will also be of interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of Systems Science.

Serious Games And Edutainment Applications

Author: Minhua Ma
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319516450
Size: 36.85 MB
Format: PDF
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With the continued application of gaming for training and education, which has seen exponential growth over the past two decades, this book offers an insightful introduction to the current developments and applications of game technologies within educational settings, with cutting-edge academic research and industry insights, providing a greater understanding into current and future developments and advances within this field. Following on from the success of the first volume in 2011, researchers from around the world presents up-to-date research on a broad range of new and emerging topics such as serious games and emotion, games for music education and games for medical training, to gamification, bespoke serious games, and adaptation of commercial off-the shelf games for education and narrative design, giving readers a thorough understanding of the advances and current issues facing developers and designers regarding games for training and education. This second volume of Serious Games and Edutainment Applications offers further insights for researchers, designers and educators who are interested in using serious games for training and educational purposes, and gives game developers with detailed information on current topics and developments within this growing area.