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The Concept Of Abuse In Eu Competition Law

Author: Pinar Akman
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318894
Size: 50.59 MB
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The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and, coupled with the current state of economics in this area, raises an important question of legitimacy. Using law and economic approaches, this book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, this book establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself, and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about regarding both objectives and scope. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as the potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.

The Concept Of Abuse In Eu Competition Law

Author: Pinar Akman
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847318908
Size: 30.31 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and, coupled with the current state of economics in this area, raises an important question of legitimacy. Using law and economic approaches, this book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, this book establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself, and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about regarding both objectives and scope. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as the potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.

The Concept Of Abuse In Eu Competition Law

Author: Pinar Akman
Publisher: Hart Pub Limited
ISBN: 9781849469722
Size: 25.96 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 1757
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The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and raises an important question of legitimacy. This book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, it establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.

The More Economic Approach To Eu Antitrust Law

Author: Anne C Witt
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509909230
Size: 66.15 MB
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In the late 1990s, the European Commission embarked on a long process of introducing a 'more economic approach' to EU Antitrust law. One by one, it reviewed its approach to all three pillars of EU Antitrust Law, starting with Article 101 TFEU, moving on to EU merger control and concluding the process with Article 102 TFEU. Its aim was to make EU antitrust law more compatible with contemporary economic thinking. On the basis of an extensive empirical analysis of the Commission's main enforcement tools, this book establishes the changes that the more economic approach has made to the Commission's enforcement practice over the past fifteen years. It demonstrates that the more economic approach not only introduced modern economic assessment tools to the Commission's analyses, but fundamentally changed the Commission's interpretation of the law. Emulating one of the key credos of the US Antitrust Revolution thirty years earlier, the Commission reinterpreted the EU antitrust rules as aiming at the enhancement of economic consumer welfare only, and amended its understanding of key legal concepts accordingly. This book argues that the Commission's new understanding of the law has many benefits. Its key principles are logical, translate well into workable legal concepts and promise a great degree of accuracy. However, it also has a number of serious drawbacks as it stands. Most worryingly, its revised interpretation of the law is to large extents incompatible with the case law of the European Court of Justice, which has not been swayed by the exclusive consumer welfare aim. This situation is undesirable from the point of view of legal certainty and the rule of law.

Private Power Online Information Flows And Eu Law

Author: Angela Daly
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509900640
Size: 32.14 MB
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This monograph examines how European Union law and regulation address concentrations of private economic power which impede free information flows on the Internet to the detriment of Internet users' autonomy. In particular, competition law, sector specific regulation (if it exists), data protection and human rights law are considered and assessed to the extent they can tackle such concentrations of power for the benefit of users. Using a series of illustrative case studies, of Internet provision, search, mobile devices and app stores, and the cloud, the work demonstrates the gaps that currently exist in EU law and regulation. It is argued that these gaps exist due, in part, to current overarching trends guiding the regulation of economic power, namely neoliberalism, by which only the situation of market failure can invite ex ante rules, buoyed by the lobbying of regulators and legislators by those in possession of such economic power to achieve outcomes which favour their businesses. Given this systemic, and extra-legal, nature of the reasons as to why the gaps exist, solutions from outside the system are proposed at the end of each case study. This study will appeal to EU competition lawyers and media lawyers.

The Interface Between Competition And The Internal Market

Author: Vasiliki Brisimi
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 178225448X
Size: 74.16 MB
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This book explores the interface between competition law and market integration in the application of Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), focusing on the notion of 'market separation'-namely conduct that may hinder cross-border trade. The discussion reviews, among other things, the treatment of geographic price discrimination and exclusionary abuse, by which out-of-state competitors are affected. 'Market separation' cases are treated in the book as a case study for appraising the interface between competition and the Internal Market. On this basis, the book provides a comparative analysis of the Treaty requirements under Article 102 TFEU when applied in 'market separation' cases and the Treaty requirements under the free movement provisions. In addition, it utilises 'market separation' cases as a springboard for advancing an informed reformulation of the application of Article 102 TFEU when state action comes into play. All in all, the analysis presented in the book deconstructs the elements for establishing 'market separation' as an abuse of the dominant position. It shows that there is nothing that would justify a distinctive treatment of 'market separation' under Article 102 TFEU, other than a principled understanding of Internal Market law as a whole: whatever understanding one reaches about the proper shape of the Internal Market, interrogation of the proper application of competition law comes after that and thus should be informed by this understanding.

Global Competition Law And Economics

Author: Einer Elhauge
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317677
Size: 43.55 MB
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This is the second edition of the acclaimed text on global antitrust law. With markets becoming increasingly global, mergers requiring approval in several different jurisdictions, cartels in one nation affecting supply in others, and countries increasingly entering into treaties with each other about the content or enforcement of competition laws, antitrust law is now a truly global phenomenon. Modern antitrust law is also different because it now reflects an increasingly economic approach to analysing antitrust and competition policy. This innovative work is the only truly comparative and economically sophisticated casebook on the market. Addressed to students from all jurisdictions having competition laws, this casebook provides an in-depth analysis of the two major global antitrust regimes in the world, as well as a summary of selected national antitrust laws. As such it will also serve as a useful reference for practitioners, competition officials and policy-makers interested in competition law. In the four years since the first edition, the increased globalization of antitrust law has continued apace. China, the world's third largest economy after the EU and US, has adopted an antitrust law and other nations have modified and modernized their antitrust regimes. The EU has adopted a new EU Treaty, new EU guidelines on abuse of dominance, new EU guidelines on non-horizontal mergers, and new EU regulations and guidelines on vertical agreements. In the US there have been important new Supreme Court cases (the 2009 Linkline and 2010 American Needle decisions) and the appearance of a new economic approach in the revised 2010 U.S. Merger Guidelines. This new edition expands and updates the pioneering approach of the first edition, addressing new developments not only in the US and EU, but also in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, Japan, South Africa, and South Korea, with expanded coverage of China's new antitrust law, and the antitrust laws of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Egypt, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Peru, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Venezuela. Praise for the first edition '...worthy of considerable praise...contains a vast collection of well-chosen material taking in a wide span of both antitrust and merger law issues. It is well written and clear throughout, particularly on the economic concepts, and provides incisive commentary and questions which inspire further study.' Peter Whelan, Cambridge Law Journal 'Enlightened law professors and law schools will best serve their students not by teaching national competition law but by adopting Global Competition Law and Economics...an excellent book for introductory courses in comparative competition law at either a graduate or undergraduate level.' Okeoghene Odudu, Common Market Law Review '...the best four-and-a-half centimetres of shelf-space that I have seen devoted to competition law and policy issues for a very long time†?.' Yvonne van Roy, New Zealand Law Journal 'Free from the ideologically-driven perspective that can affect other antitrust casebooks, this is also the first casebook organized from inception with an eye directly on the global context...this book may be used in a classroom in Europe just as it will be used in the U.S. The result is a highly welcome contribution to the evolution of competition studies.' Judge Douglas Ginsburg '...this book is the only one on the market that is extremely well suited for use in a comparative antitrust law class...an extraordinarily teachable book that contains everything you might want to present...Finally, the comparative antitrust field has a standard textbook to use. And a wonderful standard it is.' Robert H Lande, University of Baltimore Law School

The Law And Economics Of Article 102 Tfeu

Author: Robert O'Donoghue
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1782251413
Size: 38.31 MB
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The Law and Economics of Article 102 TFEU is a comprehensive, integrated treatment of the legal and economic principles that underpin the application of Article 102 TFEU to the behaviour of dominant firms. Traditional concerns of monopoly behaviour, such as predatory pricing, refusals to deal, excessive pricing, tying and bundling, discount practices and unlawful discrimination are treated in detail through a review of the applicable economic principles, the case law and decisional practice and more recent economic and legal writings. In addition, the major constituent elements of Article 102 TFEU, such as market definition, dominance, effect on trade and applicable remedies are considered at length. Jointly authored by a lawyer and an economist, The Law and Economics of Article 102 TFEU contains an integrated approach to the legal and economic principles that frame policy in this major area of competition law. Although written primarily with practitioners and in-house lawyers in mind, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in competition law enforcement against monopoly behaviour. Reviews of the First Edition: This is a truly outstanding book?With regard to many issues, the authors..achieve an analytical depth which is not even matched by many journal contributions dealing exclusively with those particular subjects?a truly seminal book on Article 82 EC that should and will have a major impact on the further development of this area of EC competition law. The book not only deserves to but certainly also will be widely read by academic and practising lawyers and economists concerned with abuse control. Thomas Eilmansberger Common Market Law Review Vol 44. No 4 Being the first book dedicated to this subject, The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC sets the benchmark very high for any followers?a comprehensive study that adopts a fresh method to the consideration of Art.82 EC?One of the strongest features is perhaps the fact that the economics discussion contains hardly any equations and thus is absolutely accessible to non-economists?The Law and Economics of Article 82 EC can be thought of as saving the reader from having recourse to two separate books by combining the law and economics of Art.82 EC in a coherent framework without leaving anything essential out?a seminal guide for all those interested in Art.82 EC. Pinar Akman The Journal of Business Law March 2007 The text is lucid and there is a wealth of references to economic and legal materials and explanations in careful and substantial footnotes. I found answers to many questions I had not even thought of asking. The work is critical as well as practical?A second edition will be demanded soon after the Commission publishes its intentions next year. This scholarly, practical and very substantial work is warmly welcome. Valentine Korah World Competition Law and Economics Review June 2007 ...this book is one of the best I have come across?the first to thoroughly integrate the economic and legal discussions into a single text?an essential book for any practice dealing in competition law. I would also suggest that it should find its way into university and vocational training law libraries where?a better overall understanding of Art.82 will accrue. Philip Allery European Competition Law Review 2007 This book is an admirable achievement, and the authors are to be congratulated on producing a work of high class and great interest. It is handsomely produced, easy to read, and comprehensive in its scope. Its publication now is timely, as we await the next stage of the Commission's review of Article 82?a first-rate piece of work that will be highly influential in the years ahead and that will be gratefully referred to by everyone interested in this fascinating but difficult topic. It is very highly recommended. Richard Whish Competition Policy International Journal Autumn 2006, Vol. 2, No. 2 La structure de l'ouvrage, qui analyse consécutivement les notions de définition de marché, de position dominante, les différents abus et leurs remà ̈des, est classique. Le contenu, en revanche, est engagé? O'Donoghue et Padilla font ?uvre de décomposition minutieuse et sans réel précédent du droit des pratiques unilatérales. Translation from the French :The structure of the book is classic. It analyses the concepts of definition of the market, of dominant position, of the various abuses and their remedies. The content, on the other hand, is highly original?O'Donoghue and Padilla engage in a searching analysis, one without any real precedent, of the law of unilateral practices. Simon Gen

Article 82 Ec

Author: Ariel Ezrachi
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847315402
Size: 62.33 MB
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The landscape of European competition law has seen significant changes in the past decade, both in terms of enforcement and substantive application. One of the last frontiers to be subjected to scrutiny has been Article 82. In recent years the European Commission has pushed forward the debate on the nature and scope of Article 82. Of major significance to this debate were the Commission's Consultation Paper on an economic approach to Article 82, the Discussion Paper on the application of Article 82 to exclusionary abuses, and the Commission's recent Guidance on its enforcement priorities in applying Article 82. The debate over the realm of Article 82 EC has raised important questions as to its past and present application. This collection of essays by international experts explores the changing boundaries of Article 82 EC and considers its recent evolution. The chapters cover a range of subjects, including the legal and economic implications of an effects-based approach to Article 82 EC, the recent Commission Guidance on Article 82 EC, the interface between intellectual property rights and competition law, licensing, tying, excessive pricing, and the protection of the consumer interest.

Prohibition Of Abuse Of Law

Author: Rita de la Feria
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316565
Size: 52.33 MB
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The Court of Justice has been alluding to 'abuse and abusive practices' for more than thirty years, but for a long time the significance of these references has been unclear. Few lawyers examined the case law, and those who did doubted whether it had led to the development of a legal principle. Within the last few years there has been a radical change of attitude, largely due to the development by the Court of an abuse test and its application within the field of taxation. In this book, academics and practitioners from all over Europe discuss the development of the Court's approach to abuse of law across the whole spectrum of European Union law, analysing the case-law from the 1970s to the present day and exploring the consequences of the introduction of the newly designated 'principle of prohibition of abuse of law' for the development of the laws of the EU and those of the Member States.