Download the concept of argument a philosophical foundation logic argumentation reasoning in pdf or read the concept of argument a philosophical foundation logic argumentation reasoning in pdf online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online button to get the concept of argument a philosophical foundation logic argumentation reasoning in pdf book now. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.



The Concept Of Argument

Author: Harald R. Wohlrapp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940178762X
Size: 37.15 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 2838
Download and Read
Arguing that our attachment to Aristotelian modes of discourse makes a revision of their conceptual foundations long overdue, the author proposes the consideration of unacknowledged factors that play a central role in argument itself. These are in particular the subjective imprint and the dynamics of argumentation. Their inclusion in a four-dimensional framework (subjective-objective, structural-procedural) and the focus on thesis validity allow for a more realistic view of our discourse practice. Exhaustive analyses of fascinating historical and contemporary arguments are provided. These range from Columbus’s advocacy of the Western Passage to India, over the trial of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, to today’s highly charged controversies surrounding euthanasia and embryo research. Excavating foundational issues such as the purpose of argument itself (assent of an audience or critical examination of validity claims) and the contested role of argument as a generator of knowledge, the book culminates in a discussion of the relationship between rationality and reasonableness and criticizes the restrictions of ‘rational’ argument relying on fixed logical, economic or cultural criteria that in reality are mutable. Here, a true, open argument requires the infusion of Paul Lorenzen’s principle of ‘transsubjectivity’, which recognizes but transcends the partiality of the individual and which can be seen in the pragmatic and expanding consensus that humanity can control itself to safeguard the future of a fragile, damaged world.

The Concept Of Argument

Author: Harald R. Wohlrapp
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940178762X
Size: 18.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 6303
Download and Read
Arguing that our attachment to Aristotelian modes of discourse makes a revision of their conceptual foundations long overdue, the author proposes the consideration of unacknowledged factors that play a central role in argument itself. These are in particular the subjective imprint and the dynamics of argumentation. Their inclusion in a four-dimensional framework (subjective-objective, structural-procedural) and the focus on thesis validity allow for a more realistic view of our discourse practice. Exhaustive analyses of fascinating historical and contemporary arguments are provided. These range from Columbus’s advocacy of the Western Passage to India, over the trial of King Louis XVI during the French Revolution, to today’s highly charged controversies surrounding euthanasia and embryo research. Excavating foundational issues such as the purpose of argument itself (assent of an audience or critical examination of validity claims) and the contested role of argument as a generator of knowledge, the book culminates in a discussion of the relationship between rationality and reasonableness and criticizes the restrictions of ‘rational’ argument relying on fixed logical, economic or cultural criteria that in reality are mutable. Here, a true, open argument requires the infusion of Paul Lorenzen’s principle of ‘transsubjectivity’, which recognizes but transcends the partiality of the individual and which can be seen in the pragmatic and expanding consensus that humanity can control itself to safeguard the future of a fragile, damaged world.

Arguments About Arguments

Author: Maurice A. Finocchiaro
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521853279
Size: 32.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 7544
Download and Read
This book brings together essays by one of the pre-eminent scholars of informal logic.

Logic

Author: Scott L. Pratt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119016223
Size: 49.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 376
Download and Read
An enlightening introduction to the study of logic: its history, philosophical foundations, and formal structures Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is the first book of its kind to frame the study of introductory logic in terms of problems connected to wider issues of knowledge and judgment that arise in the context of racial, cultural, and religious diversity. With its accessible style and integration of philosophical inquiry and real-life concerns, this book offers a novel approach to the theory of logic and its relevance to questions of meaning and value that arise in the world around us. The book poses four problems for logic: Is logic separate from experience? Does logic require dualisms? Can logic reconcile opposed ways of understanding the world? And when things are divided, does the boundary have a logic? The author begins the exploration of these questions with a discussion of the process of analyzing and constructing arguments. Using the logical theories of C. S. Peirce, John Dewey, and Josiah Royce to frame the investigation, subsequent chapters outline the process of inquiry, the concept of communicative action, the nature of validity, categorical reasoning through the theory of the syllogism, and inductive reasoning and probability. The book concludes with a presentation of modal logic, propositional logic, and quantification. Logic is presented as emerging from the activities of inquiry and communication, allowing readers to understand even the most difficult aspects of formal logic as straightforward developments of the process of anticipating and taking action. Numerous practice problems use arguments related to issues of diversity and social theory, and the book introduces methods of proving validity that include Venn diagrams, natural deduction, and the method of tableaux. Logic: Inquiry, Argument, and Order is an ideal book for courses on philosophical methods and critical reasoning at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an insightful reference for anyone who would like to explore a cross-cultural approach to the topic of logic.

Philosophy Of Logic

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080466637
Size: 63.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 211
Download and Read
The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter

Legal Argumentation And Evidence

Author: Douglas Walton
Publisher: Penn State Press
ISBN: 9780271048338
Size: 30.79 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 2949
Download and Read
A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.

Making Arguments

Author: Edmond H. Weiss
Publisher: eBookIt.com
ISBN: 1456608592
Size: 60.72 MB
Format: PDF
View: 5842
Download and Read
Making Arguments: Reason in Context offers a new approach to the teaching of argumentation and debate. Nearly all argumentation courses and textbooks tilt toward one of two extremes: * Critical thinking/informal logic, in which the "laws" of reasoning are universal and not affected by audience or context * Public speaking, in which adaptation to the audience and winning assent trumps logic and reasoning At the first extreme are texts that stress flaws in arguments and how to discern them. Their focus tends to be on the logic (making deductive inferences and avoiding deductive mistakes or other errors of inference) and/or the recognition of fallacies (deficient or fake arguments). They also deal with the messy ambiguities of language. Generally, this approach omits the concept of an audience. And it does not explain how spotting the flaws in reasoning, or improving one's reasoning, translates into the ability to make an effective argument. Further, it is not clear how to address audiences whose grasp of logic is shaky. At the other extreme are books (especially public speaking textbooks) that err in the opposite direction. They are fixated on audience. As a result, their advice about how to argue is grounded in audience adaptation. In fact, the process of reasoning is nearly subordinated to such secondary considerations as style, delivery, and organization. And again, the connection between critical thinking/logic and audience is rarely examined. In Making Arguments, we propose to consider argument at the nexus of invention and judgment, the two endpoints from which logic and public speaking examine argumentation, respectively. By looking at the "stuff" that comes between an argument's design and its delivery, we hope to enrich the understanding and the study of argument, as both a theoretical and applied discipline. In particular, we want to answer some questions that are seldom addressed in print: * What is the starting point for augmentation? When do we even need to argue? * When should one embrace, and when should one avoid, arguing? * Why does the same argument work in one place and fail in another? * Are most audiences capable of understanding a complex argument? * With what authority can one make an argument--absent expertise in the field in which the argument takes place? * Are there substantive differences between oral and written argument? * What does it mean to "present" an argument? * Can someone control the argumentative situation/context to the benefit of his/her position? * How can argument educate and improve the arguer? * Can we learn the "truth" by arguing? This book addresses the whole advocacy process as a series of concatenated intellectual decisions affecting how arguments are created, ordered, rendered, and produced--with judgment as the over-arching concern.

Argumentation In Artificial Intelligence

Author: Iyad Rahwan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387981977
Size: 26.35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 4468
Download and Read
Argumentation is all around us. Letters to the Editor often make points of cons- tency, and “Why” is one of the most frequent questions in language, asking for r- sons behind behaviour. And argumentation is more than ‘reasoning’ in the recesses of single minds, since it crucially involves interaction. It cements the coordinated social behaviour that has allowed us, in small bands of not particularly physically impressive primates, to dominate the planet, from the mammoth hunt all the way up to organized science. This volume puts argumentation on the map in the eld of Arti cial Intelligence. This theme has been coming for a while, and some famous pioneers are chapter authors, but we can now see a broader systematic area emerging in the sum of topics and results. As a logician, I nd this intriguing, since I see AI as ‘logic continued by other means’, reminding us of broader views of what my discipline is about. Logic arose originally out of re ection on many-agent practices of disputation, in Greek Ant- uity, but also in India and China. And logicians like me would like to return to this broader agenda of rational agency and intelligent interaction. Of course, Aristotle also gave us a formal systems methodology that deeply in uenced the eld, and eventually connected up happily with mathematical proof and foundations.

Arguments And Arguing

Author: Thomas A. Hollihan
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478632011
Size: 28.46 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 6055
Download and Read
The latest edition of Arguments and Arguing contains the same balance of theory and practice, breadth of coverage, current and relevant examples, and accessible writing style that made previous editions so popular in hundreds of classrooms. The authors draw from classic and recent argumentation theory and research, contextualized with well-chosen examples, to showcase a narrative style of argumentation and the values and attitudes of audiences. Readers learn how to employ both formal and informal argumentative strategies in an array of communication forums—from interpersonal interactions to academic debate to politics to business. A newly added chapter on visual argumentation and a striking color photo insert demonstrate the value and power of visual elements in the construction of arguments. The ability to argue is necessary if people are to solve problems, resolve conflicts, and evaluate alternative courses of action. While many are taught that arguing is counterproductive and arguments should be avoided, Hollihan and Baaske illustrate that arguing is an essential and fundamental human activity. Learning the art of effective argumentation entails a grasp of not only the strategies and principles of analysis and logical reasoning but also the importance of arguing in a positive and socially constructive fashion.