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The Condemnation Of Blackness

Author: Khalil Gibran Muhammad
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674062116
Size: 23.78 MB
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"The Idea of Black Criminality was crucial to the making of modern urban America. Khalil Gibran Muhammad chronicles how, when, and why modern notions of black people as an exceptionally dangerous race of criminals first emerged. Well known are the lynch mobs and racist criminal justice practices in the South that stoked white fears of black crime and shaped the contours of the New South. In this illuminating book, Muhammad shifts our attention to the urban North as a crucial but overlooked site for the production and dissemination of those ideas and practices. Following the 1890 census - the first to measure the generation of African Americans born after slavery - crime statistics, new migration and immigration trends, and symbolic references to America as the promised land were woven into a cautionary tale about the exceptional threat black people posed to modern urban society. Excessive arrest rates and overrepresentation in northern prisons were seen by many whites - liberals and conservatives, northerners and southerners - as indisputable proof of blacks' inferiority. What else but pathology could explain black failure in the land of opportunity? Social scientists and reformers used crime statistics to mask and excuse anti-black racism, violence, and discrimination across the nation, especially in the urban North. The Condemnation of Blackness is the most thorough historical account of the enduring link between blackness and criminality in the making of modern urban America. It is a startling examination of why the echoes of America's Jim Crow past continue to resonate in 'color-blind' crime rhetoric today."--Book jacket.

Police In Urban America 1860 1920

Author: Eric H. Monkkonen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521531252
Size: 37.71 MB
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This book examines the rapid spread of uniformed police forces throughout late nineteenth-century urban America. It suggests that, initially, the new kind of police in industrial cities served primarily as agents of class control, dispensing and administering welfare services as an unintentioned consequence of their uniformed presence on the streets.

The Making Of Urban America

Author: Raymond A. Mohl
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780842026390
Size: 70.55 MB
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The process by which a group of small colonial settlements in an untamed wilderness grew into a highly industrialized and urbanized nation is one of the central and most important themes of American history. The updated Making of Urban America provides a superb collection of essays for students and teachers on the many facets of urban development through history. This detailed and well-researched study traces urban development from the preindustrial city to the twentieth-century city. With emphasis on the social, economic, political, commercial, and cultural aspects of urban history, these essays illustrate the growth and change that brought about modern-day urban life. In his extensive historiographical analysis of urban America, Professor Raymond Mohl introduces the reader to current literature and perspectives on urban history. Dynamic topics such as technology, immigration and ethnicity, suburbanization, sunbelt cities, urban political history, and planning and housing are examined. The Making of Urban America is the only reader available covering all of U.S. urban history and includes the most recent interpretive scholarship on the subject.

Colored Amazons

Author: Kali N. Gross
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 9780822337997
Size: 34.22 MB
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For the state, black female crime and its representations effectively galvanized and justified a host of urban reform initiatives that reaffirmed white, middle-class authority."--Jacket.

Black Silent Majority

Author: Michael Javen Fortner
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674743997
Size: 64.33 MB
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Aggressive policing and draconian sentencing have disproportionately imprisoned millions of African Americans for drug-related offenses. Michael Javen Fortner shows that in the 1970s these punitive policies toward addicts and pushers enjoyed the support of many working-class and middle-class blacks, angry about the chaos in their own neighborhoods.

Roots Of Disorder

Author: Christopher Waldrep
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252067327
Size: 31.50 MB
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Every white southerner understood what keeping African Americans down meant and what it did not mean. It did not mean going to court; it did not mean relying on the law. It meant vigilante violence and lynching.Looking at Vicksburg, Mississippi, Roots of Disorder traces the origins of these terrible attitudes to the day-to-day operations of local courts. In Vicksburg, white exploitation of black labor through slavery evolved into efforts to use the law to define blacks' place in society, setting the stage for widespread tolerance of brutal vigilantism. Fed by racism and economics, whites' extralegal violence grew in a hothouse of more general hostility toward law and courts. Roots of Disorder shows how the criminal justice system itself plays a role in shaping the attitudes that encourage vigilantism.

Making Black History

Author: Jeffrey Aaron Snyder
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 0820351849
Size: 39.73 MB
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In the Jim Crow era, along with black churches, schools, and newspapers, African Americans also had their own history. Making Black History focuses on the engine behind the early black history movement, Carter G. Woodson and his Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (ASNLH). Author Jeffrey Aaron Snyder shows how the study and celebration of black history became an increasingly important part of African American life over the course of the early to mid-twentieth century. It was the glue that held African Americans together as “a people,” a weapon to fight racism, and a roadmap to a brighter future. Making Black History takes an expansive view of the historical enterprise, covering not just the production of black history but also its circulation, reception, and performance. Woodson, the only professional historian whose parents had been born into slavery, attracted a strong network of devoted members to the ASNLH, including professional and lay historians, teachers, students, “race” leaders, journalists, and artists. They all grappled with a set of interrelated questions: Who and what is “Negro”? What is the relationship of black history to American history? And what are the purposes of history? Tracking the different answers to these questions, Snyder recovers a rich public discourse about black history that took shape in journals, monographs, and textbooks and sprang to life in the pages of the black press, the classrooms of black schools, and annual celebrations of Negro History Week. By lining up the Negro history movement’s trajectory with the wider arc of African American history, Snyder changes our understanding of such signal aspects of twentieth-century black life as segregated schools, the Harlem Renaissance, and the emerging modern civil rights movement.

From The War On Poverty To The War On Crime

Author: Elizabeth Hinton
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674737237
Size: 14.96 MB
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How did the land of the free become the home of the world’s largest prison system? Elizabeth Hinton traces the rise of mass incarceration to an ironic source: not the War on Drugs of the Reagan administration but the War on Crime that began during Johnson’s Great Society at the height of the civil rights era.

Democracy In Black

Author: Eddie S. Glaude (Jr.)
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 0804137412
Size: 32.76 MB
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"A polemic on the state of black America that argues that we don't yet live in a post-racial society"--