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The Cosmic Century

Author: M. S. Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521474361
Size: 42.87 MB
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Reviews the historical development of all the key areas of modern astrophysics.

The Cosmic Century

Author: Malcolm S. Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107669369
Size: 64.10 MB
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The twentieth-century witnessed the development of astrophysics and cosmology from subjects which scarcely existed to two of the most exciting and demanding areas of contemporary scientific inquiry. In this book Malcolm Longair reviews the historical development of the key areas of modern astrophysics, linking the strands together to show how they have led to the extraordinarily rich panorama of modern astrophysics and cosmology. While many of the great discoveries were derived from pioneering observations, the emphasis is upon the development of theoretical concepts and how they came to be accepted. These advances have led astrophysicists and cosmologists to ask some of the deepest questions about the nature of our Universe and have pushed astronomical observations to the very limit. This is a fantastic story, and one which would have defied the imaginations of even the greatest story-tellers.

Principles Of Physical Cosmology

Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691019338
Size: 73.81 MB
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During the last twenty years, dramatic improvements in methods of observing astrophysical phenomena from the ground and in space have added to our knowledge of what the universe is like now and what it was like in the past, going back to the hot big bang. In this overview of today's physical cosmology, P.J.E. Peebles shows how observation has combined with theoretical elements to establish the subject as a mature science, while he also discusses the most notable recent attempts to understand the origin and structure of the universe. A successor to Peebles's classic volume Physical Cosmology (Princeton, 1971), the book is a comprehensive overview addressed not only to students but also to scientists active in fields outside cosmology. The first chapter of the work presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe. The second, on the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of spacetime, discusses general relativity theory as the basis for the tests, and then surveys the broad variety of ways the tests can be applied with the new generations of telescopes and detectors. The third chapter deals with the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe, and reviews ideas about how the evolution of the universe might be traced back to very early epochs when structure originated. Each section of these chapters begins with an introduction that can be understood with no special knowledge beyond undergraduate physics, and then progresses to more specialized topics. P.J.E. Peebles is Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society.

Cosmic Evolution

Author: Eric J. Chaisson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674009875
Size: 71.56 MB
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We are connected to distant space and time not only by our imaginations but also through a common cosmic heritage. Emerging now from modern science is a unified scenario of the cosmos, including ourselves as sentient beings, based on the time-honored concept of change. From galaxies to snowflakes, from stars and planets to life itself, we are beginning to identify an underlying ubiquitous pattern penetrating the fabric of all the natural sciences--a sweepingly encompassing view of the order and structure of every known class of object in our richly endowed universe. This is the subject of Eric Chaisson's new book. In Cosmic Evolution Chaisson addresses some of the most basic issues we can contemplate: the origin of matter and the origin of life, and the ways matter, life, and radiation interact and change with time. Guided by notions of beauty and symmetry, by the search for simplicity and elegance, by the ambition to explain the widest range of phenomena with the fewest possible principles, Chaisson designs for us an expansive yet intricate model depicting the origin and evolution of all material structures. He shows us that neither new science nor appeals to nonscience are needed to understand the impressive hierarchy of the cosmic evolutionary story, from quark to quasar, from microbe to mind.

Astronomy And Astrophysics Volume I

Author: Oddbjørn Engvold Bozena Czerny, John Lattanzio and Rolf Stabell
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
ISBN: 1780210000
Size: 12.53 MB
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Astronomy is the science of everything – with the exception of the Earth and everything on it and inside. Astronomy has a rich heritage dating back to the myths and legends of antiquity and the course of civilization has been greatly affected by mankind’s interpretation of what they saw in the starry sky and experienced through seasonal changes associated with the Sun and Moon. Early astronomy is associated with the definition of calendars which were needed to predict the dates of such as religious festivals and the numbers of months. A gradual shift of emphasis from astronomy to its sister, astrophysics, which took place through the 19th century, is generally attributed to the measurement of reliable stellar distances and the development of spectroscopy as a tool for understanding the physical nature of stars. Many paradigms in astronomy and its many subfields are continuously being shaken. New insights in the intricacy and elegance of the cosmos are steadily being obtained. Every few decennia, our concepts of the Universe are challenged and substantially modified. The reasons for this are the continuous development of new observing techniques and instruments for observatories both ground-based and in space, in addition to considerable progress in mathematics and physics, including computational ability. Our Universe harbors numerous phenomena and processes representing conditions that cannot be duplicated in terrestrial laboratories. Astronomy therefore frequently leads to fundamentally new insight and knowledge far beyond astronomy itself. Last but not least, it represents a first inspiring introduction to natural science, especially among young people, which is an extra motivation to many scientists to contribute to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Theme of this Encyclopedia. The book on Astronomy and Astrophysics with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, represents a first inspiring introduction to natural science, especially among young people, which is an extra motivation to many scientists to contribute to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Theme of this Encyclopedia. The first chapter which treats the development of astronomy and astrophysics in a historical perspective is followed by an account of the impact of astronomy on human culture and civilization. Observational astronomy is facing a number of environmental challenges. The nature and complexity of these and how the associated problems are met and overcome are described in the third article. Various aspects of our solar system are covered by authoritative articles on the Sun, planets including their satellites and smaller bodies, plus a review of the laws of motions and orbits of celestial bodies. The detection and studies of exo-solar planetary systems is rapidly developing field in astronomy which is treated in a separate chapter. Then follow fascinating up-to-date overviews on stars describing their formation, structure and life cycles. Stars are the building blocks of larger cosmic entities leading to the enigmatic galaxies composed of billions of stars, and gradually to clusters of galaxies. The final chapters cover the origin and evolution of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the Universe, including dark matter and dark energy which are among the most fascinating problems of physics today. These two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

A Different Approach To Cosmology

Author: F. Hoyle
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521662239
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This is a different kind of book about cosmology, a field of major interest to professional astronomers, physicists, and the general public. All research in cosmology adopts one model of the universe, the hot big bang model. But Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge and Jayant Narlikar take a different approach. Starting with the beginnings of modern cosmology, they then conduct a wide ranging and deep review of the observations made from 1945 to the present day. Here they challenge many conventional interpretations. The latter part of the book presents the authors' own account of the present status of observations and how they should be explained. The controversial theme is that the dependency on the hot big bang model has led to an unwarranted rejection of alternative cosmological models. Writing from the heart, with passion and punch, these three cosmologists make a powerful case for viewing the universe in a different light.

Dark Matter And Cosmic Web Story

Author: Jaan Einasto
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814551066
Size: 65.15 MB
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The concepts of dark matter and the cosmic web are some of the most significant developments in cosmology in the past century. They have decisively changed the classical cosmological paradigm, which was first elaborated upon during the first half of the 20th century but ran into serious problems in the second half. Today, they are integral parts of modern cosmology, which explains everything from the Big Bang to inflation to the large scale structure of the Universe. Dark Matter and Cosmic Web Story describes the contributions that led to a paradigm shift from the Eastern point of view. It describes the problems with the classical view, the attempts to solve them, the difficulties encountered by those solutions, and the conferences where the merits of the new concepts were debated. Amidst the science, the story of scientific work in a small country occupied by the Soviet Union and the tumultuous events that led to its breakup are detailed as well. This book is accompanied by a website which contains additional material: copies of the originals of some crucial papers, astronomical movies, and movies which showcase the private life of the author. The link is given below: http://www.aai.ee/~einasto/DarkMatter/ Contents:PrologueClassical Cosmological ParadigmGalactic Models and Dark Matter in the Solar VicinityGlobal Dark MatterThe Cosmic WebThe Nature of Dark MatterThe Structure of the Cosmic WebCosmic Inflation, Dark Energy and the Evolution of the UniverseEpilogue Readership: Students and professionals in astrophysics, cosmology and physics; non-experts interested in the history of science, and the life and social activity of scientists in a country occupied by Soviet Union for 50 years. Keywords:Dark Matter;Cosmic Web;Large-Scale Structure of the UniverseKey Features:The development of the concepts of dark matter and the cosmic web as a change in the worldview (paradigm) in cosmology is describedA personal view of the development of dark matter and cosmic web concepts as seen by a non-Western scientistDescription of scientific work and social activity in a small country occupied by the Soviet Union; the participation of scientists in processes which led to the collapse of the Soviet Empire, and to the end of the Cold WarReviews: “A deeply humane but also political account, the book offers a fascinating insider tour into one of the most important processes of cosmology. Einasto a pioneer of dark matter research offers a thorough scientific description of the discovery of dark matter.” Anne Liljeström Editor Stars and Universe “A fascinating combination of the scientific history of dark matter with personal recollections, by an author who was there both for the discovery of DM and for the (singing revolution) in Estonia.” Virginia Trimble Professor of Astronomy University of California, Irvine

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Malcolm S. Longair
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139494546
Size: 35.89 MB
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Providing students with an in-depth account of the astrophysics of high energy phenomena in the Universe, the third edition of this well-established textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in high energy astrophysics. Building on the concepts and techniques taught in standard undergraduate courses, this textbook provides the astronomical and astrophysical background for students to explore more advanced topics. Special emphasis is given to the underlying physical principles of high energy astrophysics, helping students understand the essential physics. The third edition has been completely rewritten, consolidating the previous editions into one volume. It covers the most recent discoveries in areas such as gamma-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic rays and ultra-high energy gamma rays. The topics have been rearranged and streamlined to make them more applicable to a wide range of different astrophysical problems.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author: Thierry J.-L. Courvoisier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642309704
Size: 80.22 MB
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High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, etc), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics processes are crucial. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

The Cosmic Microwave Background

Author: Rhodri Evans
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319099280
Size: 16.46 MB
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Rhodri Evans tells the story of what we know about the universe, from Jacobus Kapteyn’s Island universe at the turn of the 20th Century, and the discovery by Hubble that the nebulae were external to our own galaxy, through Gamow’s early work on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and its subsequent discovery by Penzias and Wilson, to modern day satellite-lead CMB research. Research results from the ground-based experiments DASI, BOOMERANG, and satellite missions COBE, WMAP and Planck are explained and interpreted to show how our current picture of the universe was arrived at, and the author looks at the future of CMB research and what we still need to learn. This account is enlivened by Dr Rhodri Evans' personal connections to the characters and places in the story.