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The Creative Process

Author: Scott R. Turner
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317780612
Size: 12.70 MB
Format: PDF
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Someday computers will be artists. They'll be able to write amusing and original stories, invent and play games of unsurpassed complexity and inventiveness, tell jokes and suffer writer's block. But these things will require computers that can both achieve artistic goals and be creative. Both capabilities are far from accomplished. This book presents a theory of creativity that addresses some of the many hard problems which must be solved to build a creative computer. It also presents an exploration of the kinds of goals and plans needed to write simple short stories. These theories have been implemented in a computer program called MINSTREL which tells stories about King Arthur and his knights. While far from being the silicon author of the future, MINSTREL does illuminate many of the interesting and difficult issues involved in constructing a creative computer. The results presented here should be of interest to at least three different groups of people. Artificial intelligence researchers should find this work an interesting application of symbolic AI to the problems of story-telling and creativity. Psychologists interested in creativity and imagination should benefit from the attempt to build a detailed, explicit model of the creative process. Finally, authors and others interested in how people write should find MINSTREL's model of the author-level writing process thought-provoking.

Encyclopedia Of Library And Information Science

Author: Miriam Drake
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 29.18 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Abstracts are useful in at least nine ways: 1. Papers in science and technology are published in more than 50 languages. Most users of technical publications can read only a few languages, and abstracts in one language help them to select documents for translation. The user needs, at most, two languages; at best, he needs only one language. 2. The technical literature is too large for an individual to acquire or scan. There are estimated to be 35,000 or more technical periodicals. More than 200,000 papers are published per year, with some overlap, in each of the fields of chemistry, biology, and biomedicine. Abstracts facilitate the selection of papers to be read. 3. Informative abstracts substitute for the original literature in many cases. 4. The reading or scanning of abstracts for selection of data or for deciding to read the original articles saves time over that required for selection from original documents. 5. Abstracts are more convenient to arrange into related groups than is the original literature. Adjacent technical papers bound in journals may often be unrelated. The same abstract can be placed in several categories less expensively than can originals. Many articles and reports fall into several classes of useful classification systems. Classified abstracts in a published journal bring together guides into a large field of knowledge—one several to many times larger than the user can read. 6. Retrospective searches are greatly aided by classified, indexed abstracts. Searching through reports or journals for any large field of knowledge is now impractical. 7. By the use of abstracts, accuracy of selection of literature to be read or translated is increased over that of selection from titles or titles plus annotations. The additional information in the abstract increases the accuracy. 8. Abstracts facilitate indexing in two ways: 1) The abstract concentrates the indexable subjects so that indexing proceeds at two to four times the rate required for original documents. 2) Elimination of the language problem enables assignment of abstracts for indexing by subject only. This specialization improves both the quality and the rate of indexing, because the subject specialist is not also required to read another language. 9. The preparation of articles, bibliographies, reviews, and talks requires organization of the material used; so do acquisition and searching. Abstracts can be used to facilitate this organization. For this purpose they can be copied, cut, and pasted. Organized abstracts also facilitate the indexing of bibliographies and reviews.

Daydreaming In Humans And Machines

Author: Erik T. Mueller
Publisher: Intellect Books
ISBN: 9780893915629
Size: 75.81 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume presents a computer model of human daydreaming to demonstrate how it is useful for creative problem solving and learning in both humans and computers. The model is implemented as the running computer program Daydreaming, which takes simple descriptions of external world events as input and produces descriptions of daydreams and actions as output.

Handbook Of Creativity

Author: Robert J. Sternberg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521576048
Size: 73.44 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The goal of this handbook is to provide the most comprehensive, definitive, and authoritative single-volume review available in the field of creativity. The book contains twenty-two chapters covering a wide range of issues and topics in the field of creativity, all written by distinguished leaders in the field. The volume is divided into six parts. The introduction sets out the major themes and reviews the history of thinking about creativity. Subsequent parts deal with methods, origins, self and environment, special topics and conclusions. All educated readers with an interest in creative thinking will find this volume to be accessible and engrossing.

Generating Narrative Variation In Interactive Fiction

Author: Nick Montfort
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 20.90 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A general method for the generation of natural language narrative is described. It allows the expression, or narrative discourse, to vary independently of the underlying events and existents that are the narrative's content. Specifically, this variation is accomplished in an interactive fiction (IF) system which replies to typed input by narrating what has happened in a simulated world. IF works have existed for about 30 years as forms of text-based computer simulation, instances of dialog systems, and examples of literary art. Theorists of narrative have carefully distinguished between the level of underlying content (corresponding to the simulated world in interactive fiction) and that of expression (corresponding to the textual exchange between computer and user) since the mid-1960s, when the field of narratology began to develop, but IF systems have not yet made use of this distinction. The current project contributes new techniques for automatic narration by building on work done in computational linguistics, specifically natural language generation, and in narratology. First, types of narrative variation that are possible in IF are identified and formalized in a way that is suitable for a natural language generation system. An architecture for an IF system is then described and implemented; the result allows multiple works of interactive fiction to be realized and, using a general plan for narrating, allows them to be narrated in different ways during interaction. The system's ability to generate text is considered in a pilot evaluation. Plans for future work are also discussed. They include publicly released systems for IF development and narratology education, adding a planning capability that uses actors' individual perspectives, and adapting automatic narration to different sorts of interactive systems.

Artificial Intelligence And Literary Creativity

Author: Selmer Bringsjord
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum
ISBN: 9780805819861
Size: 68.21 MB
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Is human creativity a wall that AI can never scale? Many people are happy to admit that experts in many domains can be matched by either knowledge-based or sub-symbolic systems, but even some AI researchers harbor the hope that when it comes to feats of sheer brilliance, mind over machine is an unalterable fact. In this book, the authors push AI toward a time when machines can autonomously write not just humdrum stories of the sort seen for years in AI, but first-rate fiction thought to be the province of human genius. It reports on five years of effort devoted to building a story generator--the BRUTUS.1 system. This book was written for three general reasons. The first theoretical reason for investing time, money, and talent in the quest for a truly creative machine is to work toward an answer to the question of whether we ourselves are machines. The second theoretical reason is to silence those who believe that logic is forever closed off from the emotional world of creativity. The practical rationale for this endeavor, and the third reason, is that machines able to work alongside humans in arenas calling for creativity will have incalculable worth.