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The Dynamics Of Violence In Central Africa

Author: Rene Lemarchand
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812202597
Size: 39.86 MB
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Endowed with natural resources, majestic bodies of fresh water, and a relatively mild climate, the Great Lakes region of Central Africa has also been the site of some of the world's bloodiest atrocities. In Rwanda, Burundi, and the Congo-Kinshasa, decades of colonial subjugation—most infamously under Belgium's Leopold II—were followed by decades of civil warfare that spilled into neighboring countries. When these conflicts lead to horrors such as the 1994 Rwandan genocide, ethnic difference and postcolonial legacies are commonly blamed, but, with so much at stake, such simple explanations cannot take the place of detailed, dispassionate analysis. The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa provides a thorough exploration of the contemporary crises in the region. By focusing on the historical and social forces behind the cycles of bloodshed in Rwanda, Burundi, and the Congo-Kinshasa, René Lemarchand challenges much of the conventional wisdom about the roots of civil strife in former Belgian Africa. He offers telling insights into the appalling cycle of genocidal violence, ethnic strife, and civil war that has made the Great Lakes region of Central Africa the most violent on the continent, and he sheds new light on the dynamics of conflict in the region. Building on a full career of scholarship and fieldwork, Lemarchand's analysis breaks new ground in our understanding of the complex historical forces that continue to shape the destinies of one of Africa's most important regions.

Dynamics Behind Persistent Images Of The Other

Author: Vanessa Wijngaarden
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643907990
Size: 63.46 MB
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In tourism, strangers meet face to face. What do Tanzanian Maasai and Western tourists think when they meet? Using a combination of methods that has never been tried in anthropology, or in the field of tourism studies, this work provides novel theoretical insights into the images hosts and guests have of each other, and how their views relate to the interactions they experience. This compelling reflexive study uses video and Q method to contribute to the epistemology of anthropological research in tourism settings, and the construction of a new, more symmetrical anthropology. Dissertation. ***An important contribution to the growing field of the anthropology of tourism, an example of intense and methodical fieldwork, combined with theoretical acumen and deep reflexivity.--Prof. Dr Walter E. A. van Beek (Tilburg U.) (Series: Contributions to African Research / Beitr�ge zur Afrikaforschung, Vol. 76) [Subject: African Studies, Tourism Studies, Anthropology, Sociology]

Remaking Rwanda

Author: Scott Straus
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 0299282635
Size: 63.15 MB
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In the mid-1990s, civil war and genocide ravaged Rwanda. Since then, the country’s new leadership has undertaken a highly ambitious effort to refashion Rwanda’s politics, economy, and society, and the country’s accomplishments have garnered widespread praise. Remaking Rwanda is the first book to examine Rwanda’s remarkable post-genocide recovery in a comprehensive and critical fashion. By paying close attention to memory politics, human rights, justice, foreign relations, land use, education, and other key social institutions and practices, this volume raises serious concerns about the depth and durability of the country’s reconstruction. Edited by Scott Straus and Lars Waldorf, Remaking Rwanda brings together experienced scholars and human rights professionals to offer a nuanced, historically informed picture of post-genocide Rwanda—one that reveals powerful continuities with the nation’s past and raises profound questions about its future. Best Special Interest Books, selected by the American Association of School Librarians Best Special Interest Books, selected by the Public Library Reviewers

Life After Violence

Author: Peter Uvin
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1848137249
Size: 42.79 MB
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Burundi has recently emerged from twelve years of devastating civil war. Its economy has been destroyed and hundreds and thousands of people have been killed. In this book, the voices of ordinary Burundians are heard for the first time. Farmers, artisans, traders, mothers, soldiers and students talk about the past and the future, war and peace, their hopes for a better life and their relationships with each other and the state. Young men, in particular, often seen as the cause of violence and war, talk about the difficulties of living up to standards of masculinity in an impoverished and war-torn society. Weaving a rich tapestry, Peter Uvin pitches the ideas and aspirations of people on the ground against the theory and assumptions often made by the international development and peace-building agencies and organisations. In doing this, he illuminates both shared goals and misunderstandings. This groundbreaking book on conflict and society in Africa will have profound repercussions for development across the world.

Natural Resources And Conflict In Africa

Author: Abiodun Alao
Publisher: University Rochester Press
ISBN: 9781580462679
Size: 75.58 MB
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The first comprehensive account of the linkage between natural resources and political and social conflict in Africa.

Ethnic Conflicts In Africa

Author: Okwudiba Nnoli
Publisher: African Books Collective
ISBN: 9782869780705
Size: 27.95 MB
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The resurgence and frequency of violent conflicts and tensions require analyses taking account of the factors that have shaped the history of ethnic identities and warring groups. Citing cultural differences as the ubiquitous precursor hinders such understanding. This fifteen-nation study of conflicts in Africa shows that the capacity or failure to manage such conflicts is determined by changes brought about by the trajectories of historical events. Colonialism erected structures that ruptured the dynamics which had controlled opposing inter-ethnic relations and interests. The post-colonial era witnessed further manipulation and disintegration of ethnic identities and groups, thus making the state central to the dynamics of ethnicity in Africa. The studies book explain how the positive and negative aspects are transformed in the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial histories of African states and groups.

Why Comrades Go To War

Author: Philip Roessler
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780190864552
Size: 14.14 MB
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In October 1996, a motley crew of ageing Marxists and unemployed youth coalesced to revolt against Mobutu Seso Seko, president of Zaire/Congo since 1965. The rebels of the AFDL marched over 1500km in seven months to crush the dictatorship, heralding liberation as a second independence for Central Africa as a whole. US President Bill Clinton toasted AFDL leader Laurent-D�sir� Kabila and his regional allies -- having developed a unique camaraderie and personal trust on the region's battlefronts -- as a 'new generation of African leaders' ushering in an 'African Renaissance.' Within months, however, the Pan-Africanist alliance fell apart. The AFDL's collapse triggered a cataclysmic fratricide between the heroes of liberation that became the deadliest conflict since the Second World War, drawing in eight African countries. This book draws on hundreds of interviews with protagonists from Africa and the international community to offer a novel theoretical and empirical account of Africa's Great War. Bridging the gap between comparative politics and international relations, it argues that the renewed outbreak of calamitous violence in August 1998 was a function of the kind of regime the AFDL was and how its leaders saw Congo, the region and themselves. As a Pan-Africanist liberation movement, the collapse of the AFDL government internally and the unravelling of regional order externally were inextricably linked.

Making And Unmaking Nations

Author: Scott Straus
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801455677
Size: 15.21 MB
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In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.

War And Conflict In Africa

Author: Paul D. Williams
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1509509089
Size: 70.53 MB
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After the Cold War, Africa earned the dubious distinction of being the world's most bloody continent. But how can we explain this proliferation of armed conflicts? What caused them and what were their main characteristics? And what did the world's governments do to stop them? In this fully revised and updated second edition of his popular text, Paul Williams offers an in-depth and wide-ranging assessment of more than six hundred armed conflicts which took place in Africa from 1990 to the present day - from the continental catastrophe in the Great Lakes region to the sprawling conflicts across the Sahel and the web of wars in the Horn of Africa. Taking a broad comparative approach to examine the political contexts in which these wars occurred, he explores the major patterns of organized violence, the key ingredients that provoked them and the major international responses undertaken to deliver lasting peace. Part I, Contexts provides an overview of the most important attempts to measure the number, scale and location of Africa's armed conflicts and provides a conceptual and political sketch of the terrain of struggle upon which these wars were waged. Part II, Ingredients analyses the role of five widely debated features of Africa's wars: the dynamics of neopatrimonial systems of governance; the construction and manipulation of ethnic identities; questions of sovereignty and self-determination; as well as the impact of natural resources and religion. Part III, Responses, discusses four major international reactions to Africa's wars: attempts to build a new institutional architecture to help promote peace and security on the continent; this architecture's two main policy instruments, peacemaking initiatives and peace operations; and efforts to develop the continent. War and Conflict in Africa will be essential reading for all students of international peace and security studies as well as Africa's international relations.

Waves Of War

Author: Andreas Wimmer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107025559
Size: 21.90 MB
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"Why did the nation-state emerge and proliferate across the globe? How is this process related to the wars fought in the modern era? This book offers a new perspective on these issues. Analyzing datasets that cover the entire world over long stretches oftime, Andreas Wimmer shows that political power and legitimacy are central to our understanding of nation building, ethnic politics and the violent conflicts associated with both. He argues that shifting from dynastic or imperial legitimacy to rule in the name of a nationally defined people was both the consequence and the cause of wars between and within states. Once the 'like over like' principle was established, the ethno-political inequality that characterized nation-states with weak institutional capacity led to further ethnic conflict. Waves of War demonstrates why nationalism and ethnic politics are crucial for a proper understanding of world and domestic politics over the past 200 years"--