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The Emergence Of Civilization

Author: Charles Keith Maisels
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415096591
Size: 73.23 MB
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The Emergence of Civilisation is a major contribution to our understanding of the development of urban culture and social stratification in the Near Eastern region. Charles Maisels argues that our present assumptions about state formation, based on nineteenth century speculations, are wrong. His investigation illuminates the changes in scale, complexity and hierarchy which accompany the development of civilisation. The book draws conclusions about the dynamics of social change and the processes of social evolution in general, applying those concepts to the rise of Greece and Rome, and to the collapse of the classical Mediterranean world.

The Emergence Of Civilisation

Author: Charles Keith Maisels
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134863284
Size: 50.98 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Emergence of Civilisation is a major contribution to our understanding of the development of urban culture and social stratification in the Near Eastern region. Charles Maisels argues that our present assumptions about state formation, based on nineteenth century speculations, are wrong. His investigation illuminates the changes in scale, complexity and hierarchy which accompany the development of civilisation. The book draws conclusions about the dynamics of social change and the processes of social evolution in general, applying those concepts to the rise of Greece and Rome, and to the collapse of the classical Mediterranean world.

Early Civilizations Of The Old World

Author: Charles Keith Maisels
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134837313
Size: 74.98 MB
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In this new paperback edition of Early Civilizations of the Old World, Charles Keith Maisels traces the development of some of the earliest and key civilizations in history. In each case the ecological and economic background to growth, geographical factors, cross-cultural intersection and the rise of urbanism are examined, explaining how particular forms of social structure and cultural interaction developed from before the Neolithic period to the time of the first civilizations in each area. This volume challenges the traditional assumption of a band-tribe-chiefdom-state sequence and instead demonstrates that large complex societies can flourish without social classes and the state, as dramatically shown by the Indus civilization. Such features as the use of Childe's urban revolution theory as a means of comparison for each emerging civilization and the discussion of the emergence of archaeology as a scientific discipline, make Early Civilizations of the Old World a valuable, innovative and stimulating work.

Lugal Arru

Author: Peter Panitschek
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9783631561942
Size: 18.35 MB
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Die Arbeit ist als erster Band eines Versuches gedacht, monarchische Herrschaft im Alten Vorderasien aus altorientalistischer wie althistorischer Sicht zu untersuchen. Das Fehlen einer solchen Darstellung wird in der Literatur immer wieder moniert. Hierzu sollen Herrschaftsideologie, Legitimation, Pflichtenkanon und Regierungspraxis in den Einzelperioden, welche die Parameter zur Gewinnung des Gesamtbildes liefern, analysiert werden. Es zeigt sich, dass nur wenige Herrscher des 3. Jahrtausends tatsachlich zur Ausubung einer Autokratie im Stande gewesen sind. Je detaillierter die Rahmenbedingungen der Herrschaftsausubung greifbar werden, desto deutlicher ergibt sich die Diskrepanz zwischen den Anspruchen der offiziellen Quellen und einer Realitat, die sich aus der Berucksichtigung unterschiedlichster gesellschaftlicher Interessens- und Bewusstseinslagen ergibt."

Unbound

Author: Richard L Currier
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1628727764
Size: 40.82 MB
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Like Guns, Germs, and Steel, a work of breathtaking sweep and originality that reinterprets the human story. Although we usually think of technology as something unique to modern times, our ancestors began to create the first technologies millions of years ago in the form of prehistoric tools and weapons. Over time, eight key technologies gradually freed us from the limitations of our animal origins. The fabrication of weapons, the mastery of fire, and the technologies of clothing and shelter radically restructured the human body, enabling us to walk upright, shed our body hair, and migrate out of tropical Africa. Symbolic communication transformed human evolution from a slow biological process into a fast cultural process. The invention of agriculture revolutionized the relationship between humanity and the environment, and the technologies of interaction led to the birth of civilization. Precision machinery spawned the industrial revolution and the rise of nation-states; and in the next metamorphosis, digital technologies may well unite all of humanity for the benefit of future generations. Synthesizing the findings of primatology, paleontology, archeology, history, and anthropology, Richard Currier reinterprets and retells the modern narrative of human evolution that began with the discovery of Lucy and other Australopithecus fossils. But the same forces that allowed us to integrate technology into every aspect of our daily lives have also brought us to the brink of planetary catastrophe. Unbound explains both how we got here and how human society must be transformed again to achieve a sustainable future. Technology: “The deliberate modification of any natural object or substance with forethought to achieve a specific end or to serve a specific purpose.”

Die M Hlen Der Zivilisation

Author: James C. Scott
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518761528
Size: 72.23 MB
Format: PDF
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Uns modernen Menschen erscheint die Sesshaftigkeit so natürlich wie dem Fisch das Wasser. Wie selbstverständlich gehen wir und auch weite Teile der historischen Forschung davon aus, dass die neolithische Revolution, in deren Verlauf der Mensch seine nomadische Existenz aufgab und zum Ackerbauer und Viehzüchter wurde, ein bedeutender zivilisatorischer Fortschritt war, dessen Früchte wir noch heute genießen. James C. Scott erzählt in seinem provokanten Buch eine ganz andere Geschichte. Gestützt auf archäologische Befunde, entwickelt er die These, dass die ersten bäuerlichen Staaten aus der Kontrolle über die Reproduktion entstanden und ein hartes Regime der Domestizierung errichteten, nicht nur mit Blick auf Pflanzen und Tiere. Auch die Bürger samt ihrer Sklaven und Frauen wurden der Herrschaft dieser frühesten Staaten unterworfen. Sie brachte Strapazen, Epidemien, Ungleichheiten und Kriege mit sich. Einzig die »Barbaren« haben sich gegen die Mühlen der Zivilisation gestemmt, sich der Sesshaftigkeit und den neuen Besteuerungssystemen verweigert und damit der Unterordnung unter eine staatliche Macht. Sie sind die heimlichen Helden dieses Buches, das unseren Blick auf die Menschheitsgeschichte verändert.

Mesopotamia Before History

Author: Petr Charvát
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134530773
Size: 64.83 MB
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Mesopotamia was one of the earliest regions to produce writing, literature and the fine arts, as well as being one of the first areas to construct states. This comprehensive and detailed survey of the region's prehistory and protohistory shows how these fascinating developments were possible. Petr Charvát explores the economic, social and spiritual spheres in Mesopotamia from the Palaeolithic to the time of the early states, c. 100,000 BC to 2334 BC. The narrative is supplemented by numerous descriptions of the principal archaeological sites for each phase, and by conclusions outlining the most important developments and changes.

Profumi D Arabia

Author: Alessandra Avanzini
Publisher: L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER
ISBN: 9788870629750
Size: 30.37 MB
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English summary: The names, origins, and by ways in the west, and the uses and 'imaginary' symbolism that has for centuries distinguished the commerce in incense, cinnamon, and myrrh from the far away regions of the orient to the merchant's stalls of the Greeks and Romans. This is an ideal journey through the centuries of classical antiquity following the caravan routes, legends and the Levantine enchantment that instill an atmosphere of dreams around the commercial and cultural exchanges between the Orient and Occident, prior to the advent of the great Islamic civilization. Italian description: I nomi, le origini, le vie di penetrazione in Occidente, gli usi e il simbolismo immaginario che ha contraddistinto per secoli il commercio di incenso, cinnamomo, mirra dalle lontane plaghe d'Oriente ai banchi dei mercati greci e romani. Un viaggio ideale nei secoli dell'antichita classica al seguito di vie carovaniere, di leggende e magie levantine che infondono un'atmosfera di sogno agli scambi commerciali e culturali tra Oriente ed Occidente, prima dell'avvento della grande civilta islamica.

Before The Flood

Author: Ian Wilson
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1466867388
Size: 32.63 MB
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In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights. The great Biblical flood so described in Genesis has long been a subject of fascination and speculation. In the 19th century the English archbishop James Ussher established it as having happened in the year 2348 B.C., calculating what was then taken as the age of the earth and working backward through the entire series of Biblical "begats." Proof of the flood, which is an element of so many creation myths, began in earnest when archaeology started connecting physical evidence with Biblical story. The dream of proving the Bible as literal truth has proven irresistible, producing both spurious claims and serious scholarship. As best-selling historian Ian Wilson reveals in this fascinating new book, evidence of a catastrophic event has been building steadily, culminating in the work of William Ryan and Walter Pitman. Several years ago Ryan and Pitman had posited that around 5600 BC there had an inundation in the Black Sea of such proportions that it turned the freshwater lake into a saltwater lake by connecting it to the Mediterranean. Were that true, they estimated that there would be signs of civilization 300 feet below the surface of the Black Sea. In September 2000, using his famous underwater equipment, Robert Ballard (of SS Titanic fame) explored parts of the Black Sea near the Turkish shore and found the remains of wood houses. There had been a flood, and whether God's wrath or not it had destroyed everything around it for hundreds of miles, killing tens of thousands of people. Exploring all the archeological evidence, Wilson explains how the Black Sea flood and the Biblical flood have to be connected. In particular, Wilson argues, learnedly and persuasively, that the center of the civilized world was further to the West than previously thought-not in Egypt or Mesopotamia but in what is today Northern Turkey. The earliest, antediluvian civilizations may have migrated east into those places we have come to call the cradles of civilization, forced by the Black Sea flood to create new settlements. Scrupulous in its details and compelling in its sweep, Before the Flood is narrative detective history at its most provocative, contributing a vital new chapter to the debate about the Bible and origins of the modern world.

Making Waves

Author: Roger Lewin
Publisher: Rodale
ISBN: 9781594860447
Size: 34.20 MB
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A portrait of maverick scientist and iconoclastic medical researcher Irving Dardik describes his theory that all matter moves in interconnected waves and its implications in terms of the fields of health care, biology, medicine, and applied science. 35,000 first printing.