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The Enforcement Of Eu Law

Author: Stine Andersen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650056
Size: 32.12 MB
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A comprehensive analysis of the European Commission's general role in supervising member state compliance with EU law, this book provides a detailed assessment of centralized EU enforcement. It starts out by asking whether it is viable to establish stronger Commission powers of enforcement at this point in time. Against this backdrop, and as a means of exploring the role of the Commission, the chapters examine a number of different aspects pertaining to enforcement of EU law. Beginning with an appraisal of the Commission's function under the general EU infringement procedure stipulated in Articles 258 and 260 TFEU, the volume argues that the EU lacks independent self-sustained regime authority. Moreover, this is reflected in both substantive EU law and procedural law, including the general EU infringement procedure. Chapter two makes the case that Article 258 TFEU can usefully be explained in terms of managerialism. Chapter three analyses Article 260 TFEU concerning repetitive infringements. In particular, it asserts, EU member state sanctions sustain the managerial approach. It then goes on to examine the Commission's unsuccessful attempts to gain sharper enforcement powers through secondary legislation, and identifies the effective points of functional overlap between enforcement powers and certain types of implementing tools. Finally, it discusses the Commission's role under various non-binding, ad hoc arrangements. The concluding chapter places the general EU infringement procedure in the broader context of a comprehensive (negotiated) policy process. It argues that the enforcement stage shares many features with earlier steps in the legislative process, including flexibility and deliberation.

The Criminalization Of European Cartel Enforcement

Author: Peter Whelan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191649023
Size: 17.10 MB
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Cartel activity is prohibited under EU law by virtue of Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Firms that violate this provision face severe punishment from those entities responsible for enforcing EU competition law: the European Commission, the national competition authorities, and the national courts. Stiff fines are regularly imposed on firms by these entities; such firm-focused punishment is an established feature of the antitrust enforcement landscape within the EU. In recent years, however, focus has also been placed on the individuals within the firms responsible for the cartel activity. It is increasingly recognized that punishment for cartel activity should be individual-focused as well as firm-focused. Accordingly, a growing tendency to criminalize cartel activity can be observed in the EU Member States. The existence of such criminal sanctions within the EU presents a number of crucial challenges that need to be met if the underlying enforcement objectives are to be achieved in practice without violating prevailing legal norms. For a start, given the severe consequences of a custodial sentence, the employment of criminal antitrust punishment must be justifiable in principle: one must have a robust normative framework rationalizing the existence of criminal cartel sanctions. Second, for it to be legitimate, antitrust criminalization should only occur in a manner that respects the mandatory legalities applicable to the European jurisdiction in question. These include the due process rights of the accused and the principle of legal certainty. Finally, the correct practical measures (such as a criminal leniency policy and a correctly defined criminal cartel offence) need to be in place in order to ensure that the employment of criminal antitrust punishment actually achieves its aims while maintaining its legitimacy. These three particular challenges can be conceptualized respectively as the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization. This book analyses these three crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalization can be understood more accurately. In doing so, this book acknowledges that the three challenges should not be considered in isolation. In fact there is a dynamic relationship between the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization and an effective antitrust criminalization policy is one which recognizes and respects this complex interaction.

The Principle Of Loyalty In Eu Law

Author: Marcus Klamert
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199683123
Size: 20.30 MB
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The principle of loyalty requires the EU and its Member States to co-operate sincerely towards the implementation of EU law. Under the principle, the European courts have developed significant public law duties on States to deepen the reach of EU law. This is the first full-length analysis of the loyalty principle and its legal implications.

The Oxford Handbook Of European Union Law

Author: Anthony Arnull
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199672644
Size: 47.47 MB
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Since its formation the European Union has expanded beyond all expectations, and this expansion seems set to continue as more countries seek accession and the scope of EU law expands, touching more and more aspects of its citizens' lives. The EU has never been stronger and yet it now appearsto be reaching a crisis point, beset on all sides by conflict and challenges to its legitimacy. Nationalist sentiment is on the rise and the Eurozone crisis has had a deep and lasting impact. EU law, always controversial, continues to perplex, not least because it remains difficult to analyse. Whatis the EU? An international organization, or a federation? Should its legal concepts be measured against national standards, or another norm?The Oxford Handbook of EU Law illuminates the richness and complexity of the debates surrounding the law and policies of the EU. Comprising eight sections, it examines how we are to conceptualize EU law; the architecture of EU law; making and administering EU law; the economic constitution and thecitizen; regulation of the market place; economic, monetary, and fiscal union; the Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice; and what lies beyond the regulatory state. Each chapter summarizes, analyses, and reflects on the state of play in a given area, and suggests how it is likely to develop in theforeseeable future. Written by an international team of leading commentators, this Oxford Handbook creates a vivid and provocative tapestry of the key issues shaping the laws of the European Union.

Adjudicating New Governance

Author: Emilia Korkea-aho
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317658302
Size: 58.84 MB
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This book engages with and advances the current debate on new governance by providing a much-needed analysis of its relationship with the courts. New modes of governance have produced a plethora of instruments and actors at various levels that present a challenge to more traditional forms of command-and-control regulation. In this respect, it is commonly maintained that new governance generally – and political experimentation more broadly – weakens the power of the courts, producing a legitimacy problem for new forms of governance and, perhaps more fundamentally, for law itself. Focusing on the European Union, this book offers a new account of the role of the courts in new governance. Connecting new governance with the conception of deliberative democracy, this book demonstrates how the role of courts has been transformed by the legal and political experimentation currently taking place in the European Union. Drawing on a series of case studies, it is argued that, although deliberations in governance frameworks provide little by way of hard, binding law, these collaborative frameworks nevertheless condition judicial decision making. With far-reaching implications for how we understand the justiciability of ‘soft law’, participation rights, the legitimacy of governance measures, and the role of courts beyond the nation-state, this book argues that, far from undermining the power of the courts, governance regimes assist their functioning. Its analysis will therefore be of considerable interest for lawyers, political scientists and anyone interested in the transformation of the judiciary in the era of new governance.

The Enforcement Of Eu Law And Values

Author: András Jakab
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198746563
Size: 29.27 MB
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Examining the growing issue of EU Member States' defiance in the face of EU law, this volume outlines the development and history of this crisis, and offers a theoretical and comparative analysis of the difficulties the EU is facing in their attempts to enforce Member State to comply with European integration, suggesting solutions for the future.

European Union Law A Very Short Introduction

Author: Anthony Arnull
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198749988
Size: 17.98 MB
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The European Union is rarely out of the news and, as it deals with the consequences of the Brexit vote and struggles to emerge from the eurozone crisis, it faces difficult questions about its future. In this debate, the law has a central role to play, whether the issue be the governance ofthe eurozone, the internal market, "clawing back powers from Europe" or reducing so-called "Brussels red tape".In this Very Short Introduction Anthony Arnull looks at the laws and legal system of the European Union, including EU courts, and discusses the range of issues that the European Union has been given the power to regulate, such as the free movement of goods and people. He considers why anorganisation based on international treaties has proved capable of having far-reaching effects on both its Member States and on countries that lie beyond its borders, and discusses how its law and legal system have proved remarkably effective in ensuring that Member States respect the commitmentsthey made when they signed the Treaties. Answering some of the key questions surrounding EU law, such as what exactly it is about, and how it has become part of the legal DNA of its Member States so much more effectively than other treaty-based regimes, Arnull considers the future for the EuropeanUnion.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Law And Administration In Europe

Author: Carol Harlow
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199265374
Size: 56.87 MB
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The contributions to this volume address central issues in public law. There are chapters dealing with the general theoretical foundations of public law, including the relationship of theory and values, and discussion of the central idea of representation. The nature of the public-privatedivide continues to be of importance as a result of changes in the nature of government, and as a consequence of the passage of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Closely related to this is the contractualisation of government. The relationship between the courts, Parliament, and the executive hasalways been a central concern for public lawyers. It has been brought to the fore by the passage of the HRA, leading to discussions about the extent to which the courts should show deference to executive and legislative choices when engaging in judicial review. This vexed issue is especiallyapparent when it comes to deciding how Parliament, the executive, and the courts should treat 'non-citizens' or those who might threaten the security of the state.It is of course impossible to discuss public law without considering European Union law. There is discussion of core issues relating to the legitimacy of the EU, and its constitutional foundations. The role of courts in the process of integration is analysed, and the desirability of judicial reviewover rule-making is considered. The relationship between public and private modes of enforcing EU law is reviewed. In addition, there is a discussion of the way in which different levels of government inter-relate, viewed through the lens of devolution in the UK.

Compliance And The Enforcement Of Eu Law

Author: Marise Cremona
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019163025X
Size: 80.60 MB
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The enlargement of the EU has highlighted the challenges of compliance, but it has also helped to suggest new compliance methodologies. The combination of methodologies used by the EU and the differing levels of enforcement available are characteristic of the EU's compliance system, permitting the remarkable reach and penetration of EU norms into national systems. In this new study six authors offer their 1ssessment of the enforcement procedures and compliance processes that have been developed to ensure Member State compliance with EU law. The first three chapters examine the merits of combining both coercive and problem-solving strategies, describing the systems in place and focussing on the different levels at which compliance mechanisms operate: national, regional, and international. It also looks at horizontal compliance as well as 'from above' compliance, creating a complex and rich picture of the EU's system. The final three chapters of the book focus on different aspects of compliance seen from a national perspective. The first analyses the two bases for the use of criminal sanctions to enforce EU law: the ability of Member States to choose to include criminal penalties for non-compliance in their national law; and the imposition of criminal sanctions at a national level by EU law itself. The book then moves on to a discussion of the role of national courts in ensuring Member State compliance with, and enforcement of, EU law. It examines the role of national constitutional courts in facilitating compliance with EU law and draws comparisons between EU law and international law and their interactions both with each other and with national constitutional courts.

The Enforcement Of Ec Environmental Law

Author: Pål Wennerås
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199229015
Size: 71.49 MB
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This title presents an assessment of the principles governing the enforcement of environmental law within the EC legal system. It argues that the general case law on rights and remedies can be applied in environmental litigation, and maps out the legal justification for more effective enforcement through individual prosecution.