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The Essential Child Origins Of Essentialism In Everyday Thought

Author: Susan A. Gelman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190623500
Size: 12.93 MB
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Essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "dog," "man," or "intelligence," have an underlying reality or true nature that gives objects their identity. Where does this idea come from? In this book, Susan Gelman argues that essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children's concepts reflect a deep commitment to essentialism, and this commitment leads children to look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. Gelman argues against the standard view of children as concrete or focused on the obvious, instead claiming that children have an early, powerful tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features of things. She also attacks claims that children build up their knowledge of the world based on simple, associative learning strategies, arguing that children's concepts are embedded in rich folk theories. Parents don't explicitly teach children to essentialize; instead, during the preschool years, children spontaneously construct concepts and beliefs that reflect an essentialist bias. Essentialist accounts have been offered, in one form or another, for thousands of years, extending back at least to Aristotle and Plato. Yet this book is the first to address the issues surrounding essentialism from a psychological perspective. Gelman synthesizes over 15 years of empirical research on essentialism into a unified framework and explores the broader lessons that the research imparts concerning, among other things, human concepts, children's thinking, and the ways in which language influences thought. This volume will appeal to developmental, cognitive, and social psychologists, as well as to scholars in cognitive science and philosophy.

The Oxford Handbook Of Developmental Psychology Vol 1

Author: Philip David Zelazo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199958459
Size: 48.24 MB
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This handbook provides a comprehensive survey of what is now known about psychological development, from birth to biological maturity, and it highlights how cultural, social, cognitive, neural, and molecular processes work together to yield human behavior and changes in human behavior.

Meta Cognition

Author: Michael F. Shaughnessy
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781604560114
Size: 66.77 MB
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Over the past two decades, the word 'metacognition' has become a regularly used part of our language and vocabulary in both psychology and education. Many research articles have been written about it, the conceptualisation of this construct has expanded, and conferences abound with investigations and empirical research into various facets of this domain. This book provides some of the most recent research by scholars from various parts of the world. It includes differing perspectives - some empirical, some theory driven, and some application papers. The book focuses on metacognition and it's relevance to gifted and highly able students. Many of the papers focus directly and specifically on this; others are more tangential in nature.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook Of Childhood Cognitive Development

Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444351737
Size: 34.42 MB
Format: PDF
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This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

Making Minds

Author: Professor Henry M. Wellman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199334935
Size: 80.70 MB
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Developmental psychologists coined the term "theory of mind" to describe how we understand our shifting mental states in daily life. Over the past twenty years researchers have provided rich, provocative data showing that from an early age, children develop a sophisticated and consistent "theory of mind" by attributing their desires, beliefs, and emotions to themselves and to others. Remarkably, infants barely a few months old are able to attend closely to other humans; two-year-olds can articulate the desires and feelings of others and comfort those in distress; and three- and four-year-olds can talk about thoughts abstractly and engage in lies and trickery. This book provides a deeper examination of how "theory of mind" develops. Building on his pioneering research in The Child's Theory of Mind (1990), Henry M. Wellman reports on all that we have learned in the past twenty years with chapters on evolution and the brain bases of theory of mind, and updated explanations of theory theory and later theoretical developments, including how children conceive of extraordinary minds such as those belonging to superheroes or supernatural beings. Engaging and accessibly written, Wellman's work will appeal especially to scholars and students working in psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and social cognition.

Handbook Of Mental Health Interventions In Children And Adolescents

Author: Hans Steiner
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
ISBN: 9780787961541
Size: 55.63 MB
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The Handbook of Mental Health Interventions in Children and Adolescents is an essential guide for mental healthcare professionals to the theory and practice of mental health treatment for children up to age nineteen. Written by a panel of the best-known names in the field, this systematic and comprehensive resource includes the most current information on developmental science as it pertains to treatment, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, sociotherapy, and the integration of treatments.

Psychology Of Science

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199753628
Size: 46.51 MB
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Symposium held at Purdue Univ. in June 4-5, 2010.

Understanding Human Development

Author: Stephanie Thornton
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
ISBN:
Size: 48.79 MB
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This book is an introduction to developmental psychology that considers the biological and social processes of human development within a chronological framework that is both engaging and accessible for students.

Conventionality In Cognitive Development

Author: Charles W. Kalish
Publisher: Jossey-Bass Inc Pub
ISBN:
Size: 51.51 MB
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An important part of cognitive development is coming to think in culturally normative ways. Children learn the right names for objects, proper functions for tools, appropriate ways to categorize, and the rules for games. In each of these cases, what makes a given practice normative is not naturally given. There is not necessarily any objectively better or worse way to do any of these things. Instead, what makes them correct is that people agree on how they should be done, and each of these practices therefore has an important conventional basis.The chapters in this volume highlight the fact that successful participation in practices of language, cognition, and play depends on children's ability to acquire representations that other members of their social worlds share. Each of these domains poses problems of identifying normative standards and achieving coordination across agents. This volume brings together scholars from diverse areas in cognitive development to consider the psychological mechanisms supporting the use and acquisition of conventional knowledge.This is the 115th volume of the quarterly report series New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development.

The Origins Of Object Knowledge

Author: Bruce M. Hood
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199216895
Size: 11.34 MB
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'The Origins of Object Knowledge' presents the most up-to-date research into how the developing human mind understands the world of objects and their properties. It presents some of the best findings from leading research groups in the field of object representation from the perspective of developmental and comparative psychology.