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The Essential Child Origins Of Essentialism In Everyday Thought

Author: Susan A. Gelman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190623500
Size: 31.60 MB
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Essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "dog," "man," or "intelligence," have an underlying reality or true nature that gives objects their identity. Where does this idea come from? In this book, Susan Gelman argues that essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children's concepts reflect a deep commitment to essentialism, and this commitment leads children to look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. Gelman argues against the standard view of children as concrete or focused on the obvious, instead claiming that children have an early, powerful tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features of things. She also attacks claims that children build up their knowledge of the world based on simple, associative learning strategies, arguing that children's concepts are embedded in rich folk theories. Parents don't explicitly teach children to essentialize; instead, during the preschool years, children spontaneously construct concepts and beliefs that reflect an essentialist bias. Essentialist accounts have been offered, in one form or another, for thousands of years, extending back at least to Aristotle and Plato. Yet this book is the first to address the issues surrounding essentialism from a psychological perspective. Gelman synthesizes over 15 years of empirical research on essentialism into a unified framework and explores the broader lessons that the research imparts concerning, among other things, human concepts, children's thinking, and the ways in which language influences thought. This volume will appeal to developmental, cognitive, and social psychologists, as well as to scholars in cognitive science and philosophy.

The Big Book Of Concepts

Author: Gregory Murphy
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262250061
Size: 38.43 MB
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Concepts embody our knowledge of the kinds of things there are in the world. Tying our past experiences to our present interactions with the environment, they enable us to recognize and understand new objects and events. Concepts are also relevant to understanding domains such as social situations, personality types, and even artistic styles. Yet like other phenomenologically simple cognitive processes such as walking or understanding speech, concept formation and use are maddeningly complex.Research since the 1970s and the decline of the "classical view" of concepts have greatly illuminated the psychology of concepts. But persistent theoretical disputes have sometimes obscured this progress. The Big Book of Concepts goes beyond those disputes to reveal the advances that have been made, focusing on the major empirical discoveries. By reviewing and evaluating research on diverse topics such as category learning, word meaning, conceptual development in infants and children, and the basic level of categorization, the book develops a much broader range of criteria than is usual for evaluating theories of concepts.

The Conceptual Mind

Author: Eric Margolis
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262028638
Size: 25.82 MB
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New essays by leading philosophers and cognitive scientists that present recent findings and theoretical developments in the study of concepts.

The Philosophy Of Childhood

Author: Gareth B. Matthews
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674664807
Size: 51.98 MB
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So many questions, such an imagination, endless speculation: the child seems to be a natural philosopher--until the ripe old age of eight or nine, when the spirit of inquiry mysteriously fades. What happened? Was it something we did--or didn't do? Was the child truly the philosophical being he once seemed? Gareth Matthews takes up these concerns in The Philosophy of Childhood, a searching account of children's philosophical potential and of childhood as an area of philosophical inquiry. Seeking a philosophy that represents the range and depth of children's inquisitive minds, Matthews explores both how children think and how we, as adults, think about them. Adult preconceptions about the mental life of children tend to discourage a child's philosophical bent, Matthews suggests, and he probes the sources of these limiting assumptions: restrictive notions of maturation and conceptual development; possible lapses in episodic memory; the experience of identity and growth as "successive selves," which separate us from our own childhoods. By exposing the underpinnings of our adult views of childhood, Matthews, a philosopher and longtime advocate of children's rights, clears the way for recognizing the philosophy of childhood as a legitimate field of inquiry. He then conducts us through various influential models for understanding what it is to be a child, from the theory that individual development recapitulates the development of the human species to accounts of moral and cognitive development, including Piaget's revolutionary model. The metaphysics of playdough, the authenticity of children's art, the effects of divorce and intimations of mortality on a child--all have a place in Matthews's rich discussion of the philosophical nature of childhood. His book will prompt us to reconsider the distinctions we make about development and the competencies of mind, and what we lose by denying childhood its full philosophical breadth.

The Oxford Handbook Of Developmental Psychology Vol 1

Author: Philip David Zelazo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199958459
Size: 30.50 MB
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This handbook provides a comprehensive survey of what is now known about psychological development, from birth to biological maturity, and it highlights how cultural, social, cognitive, neural, and molecular processes work together to yield human behavior and changes in human behavior.

Meta Cognition

Author: Michael F. Shaughnessy
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781604560114
Size: 18.28 MB
Format: PDF
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Over the past two decades, the word 'metacognition' has become a regularly used part of our language and vocabulary in both psychology and education. Many research articles have been written about it, the conceptualisation of this construct has expanded, and conferences abound with investigations and empirical research into various facets of this domain. This book provides some of the most recent research by scholars from various parts of the world. It includes differing perspectives - some empirical, some theory driven, and some application papers. The book focuses on metacognition and it's relevance to gifted and highly able students. Many of the papers focus directly and specifically on this; others are more tangential in nature.

The Origin Of Concepts

Author: Susan Carey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199710090
Size: 34.47 MB
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New in paperback-- A transformative book on the way we think about the nature of concepts and the relations between language and thought.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook Of Childhood Cognitive Development

Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444351737
Size: 78.70 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

The Foundations Of Mind

Author: Jean Matter Mandler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195311833
Size: 33.50 MB
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This title offers a theory of how human conceptual life begins, and shows how perceptual information becomes transformed into concepts.

New Perspectives On Human Development

Author: Nancy Budwig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110711232X
Size: 74.26 MB
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This book address fundamental questions of human development, revisiting old questions and applying original empirical findings.