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The Essential Child Origins Of Essentialism In Everyday Thought

Author: Susan A. Gelman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190623500
Size: 65.18 MB
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Essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "dog," "man," or "intelligence," have an underlying reality or true nature that gives objects their identity. Where does this idea come from? In this book, Susan Gelman argues that essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children's concepts reflect a deep commitment to essentialism, and this commitment leads children to look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. Gelman argues against the standard view of children as concrete or focused on the obvious, instead claiming that children have an early, powerful tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features of things. She also attacks claims that children build up their knowledge of the world based on simple, associative learning strategies, arguing that children's concepts are embedded in rich folk theories. Parents don't explicitly teach children to essentialize; instead, during the preschool years, children spontaneously construct concepts and beliefs that reflect an essentialist bias. Essentialist accounts have been offered, in one form or another, for thousands of years, extending back at least to Aristotle and Plato. Yet this book is the first to address the issues surrounding essentialism from a psychological perspective. Gelman synthesizes over 15 years of empirical research on essentialism into a unified framework and explores the broader lessons that the research imparts concerning, among other things, human concepts, children's thinking, and the ways in which language influences thought. This volume will appeal to developmental, cognitive, and social psychologists, as well as to scholars in cognitive science and philosophy.

Entwicklungspsychologie Im Kindes Und Jugendalter

Author: Robert Siegler
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662470284
Size: 78.64 MB
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Wer dieses Standardwerk liest, erhält einen umfassenden Überblick über einschlägige Theorien, moderne Forschungsmethoden und neueste Erkenntnisse zur Kindes- und Jugendentwicklung. Die einfache, klare Sprache sowie zahlreiche Illustrationen und Fallbeispiele machen die Lektüre des Lehrbuchs für Studierende der Entwicklungspsychologie zum echten Vergnügen. Tabellen, Schaubilder, Zusammenfassungen und Praxisbeispiele helfen dabei, den Stoff zu verstehen, zu strukturieren und zu verinnerlichen. Die Inhalte des Werkes gehen dabei teilweise deutlich über den klassischen Lehrstoff für Bachelor-Prüfungen hinaus und vermitteln ein vertieftes Verständnis dafür, wie die Entwicklung in unterschiedlichen Bereichen zusammenhängt, von welchen sozialen und gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen sie abhängt und wie die Entstehung von Problemen verhindert werden kann. Die Auseinandersetzung mit dieser Lektüre lohnt sich daher nicht nur für die Prüfungsvorbereitung im Bachelor- und Masterstudium. Auch wenn Sie bereits beruflich oder privat mit Kindern und Jugendlichen zu tun haben, wird Ihnen das Buch als wertvolles Nachschlagewerk dienen und immer wieder Lust machen, sich mit den Inhalten auseinanderzusetzen.

The Oxford Handbook Of Developmental Psychology Vol 1

Author: Philip David Zelazo
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199958459
Size: 25.61 MB
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This handbook provides a comprehensive survey of what is now known about psychological development, from birth to biological maturity, and it highlights how cultural, social, cognitive, neural, and molecular processes work together to yield human behavior and changes in human behavior.

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook Of Childhood Cognitive Development

Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444351737
Size: 27.34 MB
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This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives

Making Minds

Author: Professor Henry M. Wellman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199334935
Size: 32.53 MB
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Developmental psychologists coined the term "theory of mind" to describe how we understand our shifting mental states in daily life. Over the past twenty years researchers have provided rich, provocative data showing that from an early age, children develop a sophisticated and consistent "theory of mind" by attributing their desires, beliefs, and emotions to themselves and to others. Remarkably, infants barely a few months old are able to attend closely to other humans; two-year-olds can articulate the desires and feelings of others and comfort those in distress; and three- and four-year-olds can talk about thoughts abstractly and engage in lies and trickery. This book provides a deeper examination of how "theory of mind" develops. Building on his pioneering research in The Child's Theory of Mind (1990), Henry M. Wellman reports on all that we have learned in the past twenty years with chapters on evolution and the brain bases of theory of mind, and updated explanations of theory theory and later theoretical developments, including how children conceive of extraordinary minds such as those belonging to superheroes or supernatural beings. Engaging and accessibly written, Wellman's work will appeal especially to scholars and students working in psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and social cognition.

The Origin Of Concepts

Author: Susan Carey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199887918
Size: 78.94 MB
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Only human beings have a rich conceptual repertoire with concepts like tort, entropy, Abelian group, mannerism, icon and deconstruction. How have humans constructed these concepts? And once they have been constructed by adults, how do children acquire them? While primarily focusing on the second question, in The Origin of Concepts , Susan Carey shows that the answers to both overlap substantially. Carey begins by characterizing the innate starting point for conceptual development, namely systems of core cognition. Representations of core cognition are the output of dedicated input analyzers, as with perceptual representations, but these core representations differ from perceptual representations in having more abstract contents and richer functional roles. Carey argues that the key to understanding cognitive development lies in recognizing conceptual discontinuities in which new representational systems emerge that have more expressive power than core cognition and are also incommensurate with core cognition and other earlier representational systems. Finally, Carey fleshes out Quinian bootstrapping, a learning mechanism that has been repeatedly sketched in the literature on the history and philosophy of science. She demonstrates that Quinian bootstrapping is a major mechanism in the construction of new representational resources over the course of childrens cognitive development. Carey shows how developmental cognitive science resolves aspects of long-standing philosophical debates about the existence, nature, content, and format of innate knowledge. She also shows that understanding the processes of conceptual development in children illuminates the historical process by which concepts are constructed, and transforms the way we think about philosophical problems about the nature of concepts and the relations between language and thought.

The Foundations Of Mind

Author: Jean Matter Mandler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN:
Size: 36.87 MB
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This book offers a theory of how human conceptual life begins, and shows how perceptual information becomes transformed into concepts. Mandler describes the development of preverbal concept formation, inductive inference, and recall, and explains how these processes form the conceptual basis for language and adult thought.

Psychology Of Science

Author: Robert W. Proctor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199753628
Size: 75.38 MB
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Symposium held at Purdue Univ. in June 4-5, 2010.

Handbook Of Mental Health Interventions In Children And Adolescents

Author: Hans Steiner
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
ISBN: 9780787961541
Size: 52.86 MB
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The Handbook of Mental Health Interventions in Children and Adolescents is an essential guide for mental healthcare professionals to the theory and practice of mental health treatment for children up to age nineteen. Written by a panel of the best-known names in the field, this systematic and comprehensive resource includes the most current information on developmental science as it pertains to treatment, psychopharmacology, psychotherapy, sociotherapy, and the integration of treatments.

Understanding Human Development

Author: Stephanie Thornton
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
ISBN:
Size: 44.70 MB
Format: PDF
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This book is an introduction to developmental psychology that considers the biological and social processes of human development within a chronological framework that is both engaging and accessible for students.