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The Ethics Of Capital Punishment

Author: Matthew Kramer
Publisher: Oxford University Press (UK)
ISBN: 0199642192
Size: 12.48 MB
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Debate has long been waged over the morality of capital punishment, with standard arguments in its favour being marshalled against familiar arguments that oppose the practice. In The Ethics of Capital Punishment, Matthew Kramer takes a fresh look at the philosophical arguments on which the legitimacy of the death penalty stands or falls, and he develops a novel justification of that penalty for a limited range of cases. The book pursues both a project of critical debunking of the familiar rationales for capital punishment and a project of partial vindication. The critical part presents some accessible and engaging critiques of major arguments that have been offered in support of the death penalty. These chapters, suitable for use in teaching courses on capital punishment, valuably take issue with positions at the heart of contemporary debates over the morality of such punishment. The book then presents an original justification for executing truly terrible criminals, a justification that is free-standing rather than an aspect or offshoot of a general theory of punishment. Its purgative rationale, which has not heretofore been propounded in any current philosophical and practical debates over the death penalty, derives from a philosophical reconception of the nature of evil and the nature of defilement. As the book contributes to philosophical discussions of those phenomena, it also contributes importantly to general normative ethics with sustained reflections on the differences between consequentialist approaches to punishment and deontological approaches. Above all, the volume contributes to the philosophy of criminal law with a fresh rationale for the use of the death penalty and with probing assessments of all the major theories of punishment that have been broached by jurists and philosophers for centuries. Although the book is a work of philosophy by a professional philosopher, it is readily accessible to readers who have not studied philosophy. It will stir both philosophers and anyone engaged with the death penalty to reconsider whether the institution of capital punishment can be an appropriate response to extreme evil.

Die Philosophie Der Freiheit Vollst Ndige Ausgabe

Author: Rudolf Steiner
Publisher: Musaicum Books
ISBN: 8027217490
Size: 48.29 MB
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Diese Ausgabe von "Die Philosophie der Freiheit" wurde mit einem funktionalen Layout erstellt und sorgfältig formatiert. Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (1861 - 1925) war ein österreichischer Esoteriker und Philosoph. Er begründete die Anthroposophie, eine esoterische Weltanschauung, die an die Theosophie, das Rosenkreuzertum, die Gnosis sowie die idealistische Philosophie anschließt und zu den neumystischen Einheitskonzeptionen der Zeit um 1900 gezählt wird. Auf Grundlage dieser Lehre gab Steiner einflussreiche Anregungen für verschiedene Lebensbereiche, etwa Pädagogik (Waldorfpädagogik), Kunst (Eurythmie, anthroposophische Architektur), Medizin (anthroposophische Medizin), Religion (die Christengemeinschaft) oder Landwirtschaft (biologisch-dynamische Landwirtschaft). Inhalt: Vorrede zur Neuausgabe 1918 Wissenschaft der Freiheit I. Das bewußte menschliche Handeln II. Der Grundtrieb zur Wissenschaft III. Das Denken im Dienste der Weltauffassung IV. Die Welt als Wahrnehmung V. Das Erkennen der Welt VI. Die menschliche Individualität VII. Gibt es Grenzen des Erkennens? Die Wirklichkeit der Freiheit VIII. Die Faktoren des Lebens IX. Die Idee der Freiheit X. Freiheitsphilosophie und Monismus XI. Weltzweck und Lebenszweck (Bestimmung des Menschen) XII. Die moralische Phantasie (Darwinismus und Sittlichkeit) XIII. Der Wert des Lebens (Pessimismus und Optimismus) XIV. Iindividualität und Gattung Die Konsequenzen des Monismus Erster Anhang (Zusatz zur Neuausgabe 1918) Zweiter Anhang

Evil And Moral Psychology

Author: Peter Brian Barry
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415532906
Size: 59.10 MB
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This book examines what makes someone an evil person and how evil people are different from merely bad people. Rather than focusing on the "problem of evil" that occupies philosophers of religion, Barry looks instead to moral psychology--the intersection of ethics and psychology. He provides both a philosophical account of what evil people are like and considers the implications of that account for social, legal, and criminal institutions. He also engages in traditional philosophical reasoning strongly informed by psychological research, especially abnormal and social psychology. In response to the popularity of phrases like "the axis of evil" and the ease with which politicians and others describe their opponents as "evil," Barry sets out to make clear just what it is to be an evil person.

Moral Evil In Practical Ethics

Author: Shlomit Harrosh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429850182
Size: 77.80 MB
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The concept of evil is one of the most powerful in our moral vocabulary, and is commonly used today in both religious and secular spheres to condemn ideas, people, their actions, and much else besides. Yet appeals to evil in public debate have often deepened existing conflicts, through corruption of rational discourse and demonization of the other. With its religious overtones and implied absolutism, the concept of evil seems ill-suited to advancing public discourse and pro-social relations in a liberal democracy, as evidenced by its use in the abortion debate. International relations have also suffered from references to an ‘axis of evil.’ Recently, however, philosophers have begun reconceptualising evil within a secular, moral framework, using the idea of evil as the worst kind of immorality to inform and shape our responses to issues like torture, genocide and rape as a weapon of war. This book continues this trend, exploring a constructive role for the concept of evil in practical ethics. Part I of the book begins with two examinations of the concept itself, one focusing primarily on its secular manifestations and the other on evil in its religious context. Individuals are perhaps the primary focus of attributions of evil, and Part II looks at two particular manifestations of evil, in bullying and in mass killing, before considering the nature of evil as an immoral character trait. Part III moves beyond the individual to issues of collective evildoing, evil environments, and political evil. The final part considers responses to evil: can some evil be unforgiveable, and to what extent should we ‘enhance’ ourselves morally so as to prevent future evildoing? These essays, written by leading philosophers from around the world, including the late Claudia Card, will take the philosophical debate on moral evil in practical ethics to a new level.

The Death Penalty

Author: Roger Hood
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191005312
Size: 56.69 MB
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The fifth edition of this highly praised study charts and explains the progress that continues to be made towards the goal of worldwide abolition of the death penalty. The majority of nations have now abolished the death penalty and the number of executions has dropped in almost all countries where abolition has not yet taken place. Emphasising the impact of international human rights principles and evidence of abuse, the authors examine how this has fuelled challenges to the death penalty and they analyse and appraise the likely obstacles, political and cultural, to further abolition. They discuss the cruel realities of the death penalty and the failure of international standards always to ensure fair trials and to avoid arbitrariness, discrimination and conviction of the innocent: all violations of the right to life. They provide further evidence of the lack of a general deterrent effect; shed new light on the influence and limits of public opinion; and argue that substituting for the death penalty life imprisonment without parole raises many similar human rights concerns. This edition provides a strong intellectual and evidential basis for regarding capital punishment as undeniably cruel, inhuman and degrading. Widely relied upon and fully updated to reflect the current state of affairs worldwide, this is an invaluable resource for all those who study the death penalty and work towards its removal as an international goal.