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The Evolutionary Biology Papers Of Elie Metchnikoff

Author: H. Gourko
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401593817
Size: 47.78 MB
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Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916), winner of the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his contributions to immunology, was first a comparative zoologist, who, working in the wake of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, made seminal contributions to evolutionary biology. His work in comparative embryology is best known in regard to the debates with Ernst Haeckel concerning animal genealogical relationships and the theoretical origins of metazoans. But independent of those polemics, Metchnikoff developed his `phagocytosis theory' of immunity as a result of his early comparative embryology research, and only in examining the full breadth of his work do we appreciate his signal originality. Metchnikoff's scientific papers have remained largely untranslated into English. Assembled here, annotated and edited, are the key evolutionary biology papers dating from Metchnikoff's earliest writings (1865) to the texts of his mature period of the 1890s, which will serve as an invaluable resource for those interested in the historical development of evolutionary biology.

Estonian Studies In The History And Philosophy Of Science

Author: Rein Vihalemm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401006725
Size: 61.28 MB
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The development of geography also forms an interesting chapter in the history of the University ofTartu and in that of Estonian science in general. On the one hand, geography is a natural science in the broader sense ofthe word, on the other hand it is a study of human activity. This status of geography makes it particularly sensitive to the cultural and political circumstances under which scholarship and science have developed in Estonia. The article by Professor of Human Geography Ott Kurs (born 1939) and historian of science (PhD in geography) Erki Tamrniksaar (born 1969) "In Political Draughts Between Science and the Humanities: Geography at the University ofTartu Between the th th 17 -20 Centuries" is devoted to this topic. Among other things, the article states that regular instruction in geography started at the University of Tartu in 1826, when the second chair of geography in Europe was established here. Although the present book does not contain any studies on philosophy at th Tartu University in the 19 century, I would still like to mention two names. th In the early 19 century, I. Kant's philosophy was dominant at Tartu Uni versity. One of Kant's pupils, Gottlob Benjamin Jasche (1762-1839), who had worked under him as a Privatdozent in Konigsberg, served as a professor here from 1802-1839. In the history of philosophy he is primarily known as the publisher of Kant's Logic.

Hermeneutic Philosophy Of Science Van Gogh S Eyes And God

Author: Babette Babich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401717672
Size: 47.77 MB
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This richly textured book bridges analytic and hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophy of science. It features unique resources for students of the philosophy and history of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation, cognitive theory and the psychology of perception, the history and philosophy of art, and the pragmatic and historical relationships between religion and science.

Mechanics And Natural Philosophy Before The Scientific Revolution

Author: Walter Roy Laird
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402059671
Size: 50.40 MB
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This volume deals with a variety of moments in the history of mechanics when conflicts arose within one textual tradition, between different traditions, or between textual traditions and the wider world of practice. Its purpose is to show how the accommodations sometimes made in the course of these conflicts ultimately contributed to the emergence of modern mechanics.

The Prolongation Of Life

Author: Ilya Ilyich Metchnikoff
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826118771
Size: 54.75 MB
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"Three chief evils that hang over us are disease, old age, and death. To study and control senescence, Metchnikoff proposed the establishment of a new scientific discipline he named 'gerontology.' In this classic text on the prolongation of life, Metchnikoff suggests that science should be encouraged and helped in every possible way in its task of removing the diseases and habits that now prevent human life from running its normal course, and his belief is that, were the task accomplished, the great cause of pessimism would disappear. Metchnikoff was able to proclaim himself an optimist, and found, in biological science, for the present generation a hope, or at the least an end towards which to work, and for future generations a possible achievement of that hope." ó From the Introduction by Gerald Gruman, MD, PhD

A Body Worth Defending

Author: Ed Cohen
Publisher: Duke University Press
ISBN: 0822391112
Size: 13.68 MB
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Biological immunity as we know it does not exist until the late nineteenth century. Nor does the premise that organisms defend themselves at the cellular or molecular levels. For nearly two thousand years “immunity,” a legal concept invented in ancient Rome, serves almost exclusively political and juridical ends. “Self-defense” also originates in a juridico-political context; it emerges in the mid-seventeenth century, during the English Civil War, when Thomas Hobbes defines it as the first “natural right.” In the 1880s and 1890s, biomedicine fuses these two political precepts into one, creating a new vital function, “immunity-as-defense.” In A Body Worth Defending, Ed Cohen reveals the unacknowledged political, economic, and philosophical assumptions about the human body that biomedicine incorporates when it recruits immunity to safeguard the vulnerable living organism. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s writings about biopolitics and biopower, Cohen traces the migration of immunity from politics and law into the domains of medicine and science. Offering a genealogy of the concept, he illuminates a complex of thinking about modern bodies that percolates through European political, legal, philosophical, economic, governmental, scientific, and medical discourses from the mid-seventeenth century through the twentieth. He shows that by the late nineteenth century, “the body” literally incarnates modern notions of personhood. In this lively cultural rumination, Cohen argues that by embracing the idea of immunity-as-defense so exclusively, biomedicine naturalizes the individual as the privileged focus for identifying and treating illness, thereby devaluing or obscuring approaches to healing situated within communities or collectives.

The End Of The Dinosaurs

Author: Charles Frankel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521474474
Size: 42.67 MB
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Investigates the idea that the natural disaster many scientists suspect caused the extinction of the dinosaurs occurred near Puerto Chicxulub, Mexico, when an asteroid collided with Earth, releasing deadly amounts of energy.

One Hundred Years Of Intuitionism 1907 2007

Author: Mark van Atten
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3764386533
Size: 11.56 MB
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Intuitionism is one of the main foundations for mathematics proposed in the twentieth century and its views on logic have also notably become important with the development of theoretical computer science. This book reviews and completes the historical account of intuitionism. It also presents recent philosophical work on intuitionism and gives examples of new technical advances and applications. It brings together 21 contributions from today's leading authors on intuitionism.