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The Evolutionary Strategies That Shape Ecosystems

Author: J. Philip Grime
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118223276
Size: 36.37 MB
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In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.

Green Roof Ecosystems

Author: Richard K Sutton
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319149830
Size: 26.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book provides an up-to-date coverage of green (vegetated) roof research, design, and management from an ecosystem perspective. It reviews, explains, and poses questions about monitoring, substrate, living components and the abiotic, biotic and cultural aspects connecting green roofs to the fields of community, landscape and urban ecology. The work contains examples of green roof venues that demonstrate the focus, level of detail, and techniques needed to understand the structure, function, and impact of these novel ecosystems. Representing a seminal compilation of research and technical knowledge about green roof ecology and how functional attributes can be enhanced, it delves to explore the next wave of evolution in green technology and defines potential paths for technological advancement and research.

Plant Functional Diversity

Author: Eric Garnier
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198757379
Size: 32.91 MB
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Biological diversity, the variety of living organisms on Earth, is traditionally viewed as the diversity of taxa, and species in particular. However, other facets of diversity also need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. This novel book demonstrates the advantages of adopting a functional approach to diversity in order to improve our understanding of the functioning of ecological systems and their components. The focus is on plants, which are major components of these systems, and for which the functional approach has led to major scientific advances over the last 20 years. Plant Functional Diversity presents the rationale for a trait-based approach to functional diversity in the context of comparative plant ecology and agroecology. It demonstrates how this approach can be used to address a number of highly debated questions in plant ecology pertaining to plant responses to their environment, controls on plant community structure, ecosystem properties, and the services these deliver to human societies. This research level text will be of particular relevance and use to graduate students and professional researchers in plant ecology, agricultural sciences and conservation biology.

Philosophy Of Nature

Author: Svein Anders Noer Lie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317645952
Size: 43.10 MB
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The concept of naturalness has largely disappeared from the academic discourse in general but also the particular field of environmental studies. This book is about naturalness in general – about why the idea of naturalness has been abandoned in modern academic discourse, why it is important to explicitly re-establish some meaning for the concept and what that meaning ought to be. Arguing that naturalness can and should be understood in light of a dispositional ontology, the book offers a point of view where the gap between instrumental and ethical perspectives can be bridged. Reaching a new foundation for the concept of ‘naturalness’ and its viability will help raise and inform further discussions within environmental philosophy and issues occurring in the crossroads between science, technology and society. This topical book will be of great interest to researchers and students in Environmental Studies, Environmental Philosophy, Science and Technology Studies, Conservation Studies as well as all those generally engaged in debates about the place of ‘man in nature’.

Adaptive Food Webs

Author: John C. Moore
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316879844
Size: 21.41 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Presenting new approaches to studying food webs, this book uses practical management and policy examples to demonstrate the theory behind ecosystem management decisions and the broader issue of sustainability. All the information that readers need to use food web analyses as a tool for understanding and quantifying transition processes is provided. Advancing the idea of food webs as complex adaptive systems, readers are challenged to rethink how changes in environmental conditions affect these systems. Beginning with the current state of thinking about community organisation, complexity and stability, the book moves on to focus on the traits of organisms, the adaptive nature of communities and their impacts on ecosystem function. The final section of the book addresses the applications to management and sustainability. By helping to understand the complexities of multispecies networks, this book provides insights into the evolution of organisms and the fate of ecosystems in a changing world.

Trait Based Ecology From Structure To Function

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128026359
Size: 13.88 MB
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The theme of this volume is Trait-Based Ecology - From Structure to Function. Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field Topics in this invaluable series include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology

Platform Ecosystems

Author: Amrit Tiwana
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0124080545
Size: 20.50 MB
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Platform Ecosystems is a hands-on guide that offers a complete roadmap for designing and orchestrating vibrant software platform ecosystems. Unlike software products that are managed, the evolution of ecosystems and their myriad participants must be orchestrated through a thoughtful alignment of architecture and governance. Whether you are an IT professional or a general manager, you will benefit from this book because platform strategy here lies at the intersection of software architecture and business strategy. It offers actionable tools to develop your own platform strategy, backed by original research, tangible metrics, rich data, and cases. You will learn how architectural choices create organically-evolvable, vibrant ecosystems. You will also learn to apply state-of-the-art research in software engineering, strategy, and evolutionary biology to leverage ecosystem dynamics unique to platforms. Read this book to learn how to: Evolve software products and services into vibrant platform ecosystems Orchestrate platform architecture and governance to sustain competitive advantage Govern platform evolution using a powerful 3-dimensional framework If you’re ready to transform platform strategy from newspaper gossip and business school theory to real-world competitive advantage, start right here! Understand how architecture and strategy are inseparably intertwined in platform ecosystems Architect future-proof platforms and apps and amplify these choices through governance Evolve platforms, apps, and entire ecosystems into vibrant successes and spot platform opportunities in almost any—not just IT—industry

Avian Brood Parasitism

Author: Manuel Soler
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319731386
Size: 64.56 MB
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Brood parasitism has become one of the most flourishing areas of research in evolutionary ecology and one of the best model systems for investigating coevolution. This subject has undergone remarkable advances during the last two decades, but has not been covered by any book in the 21st century. This book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the fascinating field of avian brood parasitism. The topics covered include conspecific brood parasitism; evolution and phylogenetic history of avian brood parasites; parasitic behaviour used by brood parasites; adaptations and counter-adaptations of brood parasites and their hosts at every stage of the breeding cycle (before laying, egg, chick and fledgling stages); factors affecting the evolution of host defences and parasitic attacks; the role of phenotypic plasticity in host defences; mechanisms driving egg recognition and rejection; evolution of nest sharing or nest killing by brood parasite chicks; begging behaviour in parasitized nests and food delivery by host adults; and recognition of conspecifics by juvenile brood parasites. This volume provides a comprehensive reference resource for readers and researchers with an interest in birds, behaviour and evolution, as well as a source of hypotheses and predictions for future investigations into this dynamic subject.

Parasitism

Author: Timothy M. Goater
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521190282
Size: 70.34 MB
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Synthesizes the latest developments in the ecology and evolution of animal parasites for a new generation of parasitologists.

Evolution

Author: Andrés Moya
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780198515432
Size: 78.39 MB
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Less than 150 years have elapsed since the publication of Darwin's seminal work on evolution by natural selection, yet in this short period of time evolutionary theory has transformed our thinking in all aspects of human endeavor. The rapid progress that has been made, particularly in the last decades, is reflected in this book, which illustrates many key advances in the field and provides a sampler of the diversity of questions and research approaches that constitute the modern study ofevolution. With contributions from leading experts, "Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems" addresses issues ranging from the fate of mutations to the origin of new genes, from mechanisms of speciation to patterns of radiation after mass extinctions, from recent migrations to ancient relationships, from symbiosis to virulent disease, and from the origin of play to perceptions of beauty. The book is designed to be advanced and up-to-date, but at the same time accessible and relevant to readers from the fields of genetics, ecology, animal behavior, anthropology and evolutionary biology. It will be particularly useful as a companion text for introductory and upper level courses in evolutionary biology.