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The Evolutionary Strategies That Shape Ecosystems

Author: J. Philip Grime
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118223276
Size: 47.76 MB
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In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think"and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch ofDarwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation– adaptation of animals and plants not just to theenvironment but also to life with other living things. However,more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea ofnatural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account forhow contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability oforganisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystemfunctioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidencefrom across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth ofapparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailedstructure and functioning, the essential biology of all organismsis subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints onlife-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicamentduring the evolution of every species is that, according tohabitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard tohow they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive.The compromise involves the investment of resources in either theeffort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors thatreduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-waytrade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptivestrategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate howtwo environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergenceand divergence in organism function determine the identity oforganisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionarystrategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflectsan historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finallymoving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, andanimal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a commontheoretical framework. Visit ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies"www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies/ato access the artwork from the book.

Green Roof Ecosystems

Author: Richard K. Sutton
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319149830
Size: 72.86 MB
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This book provides an up-to-date coverage of green (vegetated) roof research, design, and management from an ecosystem perspective. It reviews, explains, and poses questions about monitoring, substrate, living components and the abiotic, biotic and cultural aspects connecting green roofs to the fields of community, landscape and urban ecology. The work contains examples of green roof venues that demonstrate the focus, level of detail, and techniques needed to understand the structure, function, and impact of these novel ecosystems. Representing a seminal compilation of research and technical knowledge about green roof ecology and how functional attributes can be enhanced, it delves to explore the next wave of evolution in green technology and defines potential paths for technological advancement and research.

Plant Functional Diversity

Author: Eric Garnier
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191074683
Size: 64.12 MB
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Biological diversity, the variety of living organisms on Earth, is traditionally viewed as the diversity of taxa, and species in particular. However, other facets of diversity also need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. This novel book demonstrates the advantages of adopting a functional approach to diversity in order to improve our understanding of the functioning of ecological systems and their components. The focus is on plants, which are major components of these systems, and for which the functional approach has led to major scientific advances over the last 20 years. Plant Functional Diversity presents the rationale for a trait-based approach to functional diversity in the context of comparative plant ecology and agroecology. It demonstrates how this approach can be used to address a number of highly debated questions in plant ecology pertaining to plant responses to their environment, controls on plant community structure, ecosystem properties, and the services these deliver to human societies. This research level text will be of particular relevance and use to graduate students and professional researchers in plant ecology, agricultural sciences and conservation biology.

Philosophy Of Nature

Author: Svein Anders Noer Lie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317645952
Size: 23.30 MB
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The concept of naturalness has largely disappeared from the academic discourse in general but also the particular field of environmental studies. This book is about naturalness in general – about why the idea of naturalness has been abandoned in modern academic discourse, why it is important to explicitly re-establish some meaning for the concept and what that meaning ought to be. Arguing that naturalness can and should be understood in light of a dispositional ontology, the book offers a point of view where the gap between instrumental and ethical perspectives can be bridged. Reaching a new foundation for the concept of ‘naturalness’ and its viability will help raise and inform further discussions within environmental philosophy and issues occurring in the crossroads between science, technology and society. This topical book will be of great interest to researchers and students in Environmental Studies, Environmental Philosophy, Science and Technology Studies, Conservation Studies as well as all those generally engaged in debates about the place of ‘man in nature’.

Trait Based Ecology From Structure To Function

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128026359
Size: 19.86 MB
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The theme of this volume is Trait-Based Ecology - From Structure to Function. Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology Each volume publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting ecology as widely as in the past, to include all material that contributes to our understanding of the field Topics in this invaluable series include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology

Eine Kurze Geschichte Der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Size: 30.73 MB
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Der Dunkle Wald

Author: Cixin Liu
Publisher: Heyne Verlag
ISBN: 3641174589
Size: 80.78 MB
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Invasion Der erste Kontakt mit einer außerirdischen Spezies hat die Menschheit in eine Krise gestürzt, denn die fremde Zivilisation hat sich Zugang zu jeglicher menschlicher Informationstechnologie verschafft. Der einzige Informationsspeicher, der noch vor den Aliens geschützt ist, ist das menschliche Gehirn, weshalb das Wallfacer- Projekt ins Leben gerufen wird: Vier Wissenschaftler sollen die ultimative Verteidigungsstrategie gegen die Aliens ausarbeiten - doch können sie einander trauen?

Der Erweiterte Ph Notyp

Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783662559673
Size: 37.89 MB
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Der erweiterte Phänotyp - ein Klassiker der Evolutionsbiologie Richard Dawkins betrachtet dieses 1982 erschienene, 1999 überarbeitete und ergänzte Buch als seinen Hauptbeitrag zur Evolutionsbiologie und als Nachfolgewerk seines Bestsellers Das egoistische Gen. Für die deutschsprachige Übersetzung hat Richard Dawkins ein neues Vorwort verfasst. Dawkins erweitert in diesem Buch den Begriff des Phänotyps (als Summe aller Merkmale eines Individuums) auf die Auswirkungen der Gene dieses Individuums auf die Umwelt und auf andere Lebewesen. Beispiele sind die durch den Fortpflanzungstrieb des Bibers entstehenden Bauten, die drastische Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt haben können, oder das Gen eines Parasiten, welches das Verhalten seines Wirtes zum Nutzen des Parasiten (Saitenwurm) verändert. Dawkins betont mit diesem Ansatz die genzentrierte Sicht des Lebens. Im letzten Kapitel des Buches unternimmt er den Versuch, den Organismus neu zu definieren. Ich behaupte, dass die meisten Wissenschaftler, die meisten Autoren ein Werk haben, von dem sie sagen würden: Egal, ob Sie noch nie etwas von mir gelesen haben, lesen Sie wenigstens dies! Richard Dawkins