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The Experience Of Thinking

Author: Christian Unkelbach
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136157905
Size: 26.48 MB
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When retrieving a quote from memory, evaluating a testimony’s truthfulness, or deciding which products to buy, people experience immediate feelings of ease or difficulty, of fluency or disfluency. Such "experiences of thinking" occur with every cognitive process, including perceiving, processing, storing, and retrieving information, and they have been the defining element of a vibrant field of scientific inquiry during the last four decades. This book brings together the latest research on how such experiences of thinking influence cognition and behavior. The chapters present recent theoretical developments and describe the effects of these influences, as well as the practical implications of this research. The book includes contributions from the leading scholars in the field and provides a comprehensive survey of this expanding area. This integrative overview will be invaluable to researchers, teachers, students, and professionals in the field of social and cognitive psychology.

Attitudes And Attitude Change

Author: Tobias Vogel
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317623355
Size: 56.15 MB
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Attitudes have been a central topic in social psychology from its early beginnings. But what exactly are attitudes, where do they come from, and how can they be modified? The overall aim of Attitudes and Attitude Change is to provide students with a comprehensive and accessible introduction to these basic issues in the psychological study of attitudes. In four parts, readers learn about how attitudes can be measured, how attitudes are shaped in the course of life, how they are changed by other people, and finally, how attitudes in turn affect our thoughts and behavior. This completely revised and updated second edition covers many recent developments and reports cutting-edge research while also addressing the classic findings and theories that advanced the field. In addition to integrating the newly emerged topics of implicit attitudes and recent models regarding the coexistence of explicit and implicit attitudes, this edition also adds chapters on social influence and resistance to persuasion. This comprehensive and user-friendly book carefully balances theoretical underpinnings and empirical findings with applied examples to enable readers to use the insights of attitude research for practical applications. Critical discussions also instigate readers to develop their own thinking on key topics.

Can You Learn To Be Lucky

Author: Karla Starr
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 069813981X
Size: 80.39 MB
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“I don't know when I've been so wowed by a new author” –Chip Health, co-author of The Power of Moments and Switch A talented journalist reveals the hidden patterns behind what we call "luck" -- and shows us how we can all improve outcomes despite life’s inevitable randomness. "Do you believe in luck?" is a polarizing question, one you might ask on a first date. Some of us believe that we make our own luck. Others see inequality everywhere and think that everyone’s fate is at the whim of the cosmos. Karla Starr has a third answer: unlucky, "random" outcomes have predictable effects on our behavior that often make us act in self-defeating ways without even realizing it. In this groundbreaking book, Starr traces wealth, health, and happiness back to subconscious neurological processes, blind cultural assumptions, and tiny details you're in the habit of overlooking. Each chapter reveals how we can cultivate personal strengths to overcome life’s unlucky patterns. For instance: • Everyone has free access to that magic productivity app—motivation. The problem? It isn’t evenly distributed. What lucky accidents of history explain patterns behind why certain groups of people are more motivated in some situations than others? • If you look like an underperforming employee, your resume can't override the gut-level assumptions that a potential boss will make from your LinkedIn photo. How can we make sure that someone’s first impression is favorable? • Just as people use irrelevant traits to make assumptions about your intelligence, kindness, and trustworthiness, we also make inaccurate snap judgments. How do these judgments affect our interactions, and what should we assume about others to maximize our odds of having lucky encounters? We don’t always realize when the world's invisible biases work to our advantage or recognize how much of a role we play in our own lack of luck. By ending the guessing game about how luck works, Starr allows you to improve your fortunes while expending minimal effort.

Cognitive Unconscious And Human Rationality

Author: Laura Macchi
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262335123
Size: 58.34 MB
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This volume contributes to a current debate within the psychology of thought that has wide implications for our ideas about creativity, decision making, and economic behavior. The essays focus on the role of implicit, unconscious thinking in creativity and problem solving, the interaction of intuition and analytic thinking, and the relationship between communicative heuristics and thought. The analyses move beyond the conventional conception of mind informed by extra-psychological theoretical models toward a genuinely psychological conception of rationality -- a rationality no longer limited to conscious, explicit thought, but able to exploit the intentional implicit level.The contributors consider a new conception of human rationality that must cope with the uncertainty of the real world; the implications of abandoning the normative model of classic logic and adopting a probabilistic approach instead; the argumentative and linguistic aspects of reasoning; and the role of implicit thought in reasoning, creativity, and its neurological base.ContributorsMaria Bagassi, Linden J. Ball, Jean Baratgin, Aron K. Barbey, Tilmann Betsch, Eric Billaut, Jean-François Bonnefon, Pierre Bonnier, Shira Elqayam, Keith Frankish, Gerd Gigerenzer, Ken Gilhooly, Denis Hilton, Anna Lang, Stefanie Lindow, Laura Macchi, Hugo Mercier, Giuseppe Mosconi, Ian R. Newman, Mike Oaksford, David Over, Guy Politzer, Johannes Ritter, Steven A. Sloman, Edward J. N. Stupple, Ron Sun, Nicole H. Therriault, Valerie A. Thompson, Emmanuel Trouche-Raymond, Riccardo Viale

The Psychology Of Design

Author: Rajeev Batra
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317502108
Size: 26.62 MB
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Design plays an increasingly larger role today in creating consumer desire for products and liking for commercial messages. However, the psychological processes involved are only partially understood. In addition, design is inherently interdisciplinary, involving (among others) important elements of aesthetics, anthropology, brand strategy, creativity, design science, engineering, graphic design, industrial design, marketing, material science, product design, and several areas within psychology. While researchers and practitioners in all of these fields seek to learn more about how and why "good" design works its magic, they may benefit from each other’s work. The chapters in this edited book bring together organizing frameworks and reviews of the relevant literatures from many of these contributing disciplines, along with recent empirical work. They cover relevant areas such as embodied cognition, processing fluency, experiential marketing, sensory marketing, visual aesthetics, and other research streams related to the impact of design on consumers. Importantly, the primary focus of these chapters is not on product design that creates functional value for the targeted consumer, but rather on how design can create the kind of emotional, experiential, hedonic, and sensory appeal that results in attracting consumers. Each chapter concludes with Implications for a theory of design as well as for designers.

The Mind In Context

Author: Batja Mesquita
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1606235540
Size: 16.78 MB
Format: PDF
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Most psychology research still assumes that mental processes are internal to the person, waiting to be expressed or activated. This compelling book illustrates that a new paradigm is forming in which contextual factors are considered central to the workings of the mind. Leading experts explore how psychological processes emerge from the transactions of individuals with their physical, social, and cultural environments. The volume showcases cutting-edge research on the contextual nature of such phenomena as gene expression, brain networks, the regulation of hormones, perception, cognition, personality, knowing, learning, and emotion.

The Handbook Of Attitudes

Author: Dolores Albarracin
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135626162
Size: 60.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This new handbook presents, synthesizes, and integrates the existing knowledge of methods, theories, and data in attitudes. The editors' goal is to promote an understanding of the broader principles underlying attitudes across several disciplines. Divided into three parts: one on definitions and methods; another on the relations of attitudes with beliefs, behavior, and affect; and a final one that integrates these relations into the broader areas of cognitive processes, communication and persuasion, social influence, and applications, the handbook also features an innovative chapter on implicit versus explicit attitudes. With contributions from the top specialists, this handbook features unique collaborations between researchers, some who have never before worked together. Every writer was encouraged to work from as unbiased a perspective as possible. A "must have" for researchers in the areas of social, political, health, clinical, counseling, and consumer psychology, marketing, and communication, the handbook will also serve as an excellent reference for advanced courses on attitudes in a variety of departments.

Fluency And Reading Comprehension In Typical Readers And Dyslexics Readers

Author: Simone A. Capellini
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889454150
Size: 50.91 MB
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Reading involves decoding and comprehension components and, to become efficient, it requires a large number of cognitive and linguistic processes. Among those, the phonological awareness, the alphabetic principle, the decoding, the fluency, the lexical development and the text comprehension development. The reading comprehension is strongly related with the development of vocabulary, oral language, linguistic skills, memory skills and ability to make inferences, and the world experiences of each individual. These processes become important only when the professional needs to deal with students presenting difficulties in learning how to read. The difficulty using the knowledge of conversion rules between grapheme and phoneme to the word reading construction characterizes the dyslexia, which is a specific learning disorder with a neurological source. These difficulties presented by students with dyslexia interfere in their learning process impairing the learning development. Knowing and following the reading development and its processes, as well as obtaining the punctuation of fluency abilities and students comprehension allow us to understand what happens when the student presents difficulties to read. This could help in the identification of learning disabilities and in the development of intervention programs.

How People Learn

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309131979
Size: 43.78 MB
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

The Psychology Of Evaluation

Author: Jochen Musch
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135640580
Size: 53.34 MB
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The affective connotations of environmental stimuli are evaluated spontaneously and with minimal cognitive processing. The activated evaluations influence subsequent emotional and cognitive processes. Featuring original contributions from leading researchers active in this area, this book reviews and integrates the most recent research and theories on this exciting new topic. Many fundamental issues regarding the nature of and relationship between evaluations, cognition, and emotion are covered. The chapters explore the mechanisms and boundary conditions of automatic evaluative processes, the determinants of valence, indirect measures of individual differences in the evaluation of social stimuli, and the relationship between evaluations and mood, as well as emotion and behavior. Offering a highly integrated and comprehensive coverage of the field, this book is suitable as a core textbook in advanced courses dealing with the role of evaluations in cognition and emotion.