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The Historiography Of Persian Architecture

Author: Mohammad Gharipour
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131742722X
Size: 39.66 MB
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Historiography is the study of the methodology of writing history, the development of the discipline of history, and the changing interpretations of historical events in the works of individual historians. Exploring the historiography of Persian art and architecture requires a closer look at a diverse range of sources, including chronicles, historical accounts, travelogues, and material evidence coming from archaeological excavations. The Historiography of Persian Architecture highlights the political, cultural, and intellectual contexts that lie behind the written history of Persian architecture in the twentieth century, presenting a series of investigations on issues related to historiography. This book addresses the challenges, complexities, and contradictions regarding historical and geographical diversity of Persian architecture, including issues lacking in the 20th century historiography of Iran and neighbouring countries. This book not only illustrates different trends in Persian architecture but also clarifies changing notions of research in this field. Aiming to introduce new tools of analysis, the book offers fresh insights into the discipline, supported by historical documents, archaeological data, treatises, and visual materials. It brings together well-established and emerging scholars from a broad range of academic spheres, in order to question and challenge pre-existing historiographical frameworks, particularly through specific case studies. Overall, it provides a valuable contribution to the study of Persian architecture, simultaneously revisiting past literature and advancing new approaches. This book would be of interest to students and scholars of Middle East and Iranian Studies, as well as Architectural History, including Islamic architecture and historiography.

Iran In The 20th Century

Author: Touraj Atabaki
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857731874
Size: 74.49 MB
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Political upheaval has marked Iran’s history throughout the twentieth century. The country has been ravaged by two world wars and the brutal Iran-Iraq War which cost tens of thousands of lives. There was a Constitutional Revolution in 1905-1909 and coups in 1921 and 1953, when Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi took absolute power, followed by yet another revolution in 1979 when Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed the Islamic Republic. Wars, revolutions, coups and the impact of modernism have transformed power relations among the political and military elite and have led to radical political, social, cultural, religious and change throughout state and society. These upheavals have shaped Iran’s historiography, just as they have the country’s history. Originally based on oral and written sources, which underpinned traditional genealogical and dynastic history, Iran’s historiography was transformed in the early 20th century with the development of a ‘new’ school of presenting history. Here emphasis shifted from the anecdotal story-telling genre to social, political, economic, cultural and religious history-writing. A new understanding of the nation state and the importance of identity and foreign relations in defining Iran’s place in the modern world all served to transform the perspective of Iranian historiography. Touraj Atabaki here brings together a range of rich contributions from international scholars who cover the leading themes of the historiography of 20th-century Iran, including constitutional reform and revolution, literature and architecture, identity, women and gender, nationalism, modernism, Orientalism, Marxism and Islamism.

Persian Historiography

Author: Ehsan Yarshater
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857721402
Size: 29.49 MB
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Persian literature is the jewel in the crown of Persian culture. It has profoundly influenced the literatures of Ottoman Turkey, Muslim India and Turkic Central Asia. It has been a source of inspiration for Goethe, Emerson, Matthew Arnold and Jorge Luis Borges among others, and praised by William Jones, Tagore, E.M. Forster and many more. Yet Persian literature has never received the attention it merits. Whereas Persian art and architecture, and more recently Iranian cinema, have been written about extensively and at different levels for a varied audience, Persian literature - the greatest achievement of the Iranian people, and one of the major literatures of the world - has largely remained the exclusive domain of specialists. And although in the past few years the poems of Rumi have attracted the kind of popular attention enjoyed by Omar Khayyam’s quatrains in the 19th century, Persian literature has never received the attention it truly deserves._x000D_ _x000D_ A History of Persian Literature responds to this need and offers a new, comprehensive and detailed history of its subject. This 18-volume, authoritative survey reflects the stature and significance of Persian literature as the single most important accomplishment of the Iranian nation. Prominent scholars in the field bring a fresh critical approach to bear on this important topic and each volume includes representative samples of this literature._x000D_ _x000D_ In this volume the Editors offer an indispensable overview of the long and rich tradition of historical writing as a literary form in Persian. Highlighting the central themes and ideas which inform Persian historiography - such as the ethical and exemplary value of history, and its role in legitimising political power - this book traces the development of Persian historical writing from its origins in the 10th century and its evolution under the Mongols and Safavids, through the twilight of the traditional chronicle in the late 18th century. It goes on to trace the emergence of a national historiography during the 19th century and into the Pahlavi Era. This volume also offers an account of parallel developments in histories written in Persian in Ottoman Turkey, Central Asia and Afghanistan, reflecting the vitality of Persian culture throughout the region and the persistence of literary models and repeated themes over the centuries. The first work of its kind to consider the whole course of traditional and modern historical writing in Iran, Persian Historiography provides a much-needed introduction to the subject and serves as an essential guide to this important strand of Persian literary production.

The Cambridge History Of Iran

Author: William Bayne Fisher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521200943
Size: 11.14 MB
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Covers all aspects of the history of Iran from the collapse of the Il-Khanid empire (c.1335) to the second of quarter of the 18th century

Iran And The Nuclear Question

Author: Mohammad Homayounvash
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317197658
Size: 72.27 MB
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Spanning over a period of more than five decades since its inception, Iran’s nuclear programme is the most protracted civilian nuclear program in the world and one of the most politicized projects in Iran’s history. 'Iran and the Nuclear Question' offers a historiographical portrait of Iran’s early nuclear program under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Using declassified archival material, the book thematically chronicles the program’s genesis, evolutionary trajectory, and devolution from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It also catalogues the Revolutionary Iran’s early socialization into the atom and the Islamic Republic’s gradual change of heart about nuclear energy that culminated in the incremental resuscitation of the Shah’s nuclear enterprise in the 1980s. As the first archive-based account of one of the most long-lasting and capital-intensive nuclear enterprises during the Cold War, ‘Iran and the Nuclear Question’ is a valuable resource for students and scholars of Iranian, Middle East and Security Studies. Written in a clear and accessible format, it will also appeal to those with a more general interest in Iran and its nuclear journey.

Persian Kingship And Architecture

Author: Sussan Babaie
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857734776
Size: 11.80 MB
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Since the Shah went into exile and the Islamic Republic was established in 1979 in the wake of the Iranian Revolution, the very idea of monarchy in Iran has been contentious. Yet, as Persian Kingship and Architecture argues, the institution of kingship has historically played a pivotal role in articulating the abstract notion of ‘Iran’ since antiquity. These ideas surrounding kingship and nation have, in turn, served as a unifying cultural force despite shifting political and religious allegiances. Through analyses of palaces, mausolea, art, architectural decoration and urban design the authors show how architecture was appropriated by different rulers as an integral part of their strategies of legitimising power. They refer to a variety of examples, from the monuments of Persepolis under the Achaemenids, the Sassanian palaces at Kish, the Safavid public square of Isfahan, the Qajar palaces at Shiraz and to the modernisation and urban agendas of the Pahlavis. Drawing on archaeology, ancient, medieval, early modern and modern architectural history, both Islamic and secular, this book is indispensable for all those interested in Iranian studies and visual culture.

Persia Rle Iran A

Author: John A Boyle
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136821104
Size: 13.11 MB
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This book traces the history and culture of Persia, one of the world’s oldest civilisations, from pre-history down to the present time.

Revolutionary Iran

Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190468963
Size: 65.21 MB
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In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy guides us through recent Iranian history from shortly before the 1979 Islamic revolution through the summer of 2009, when Iranians poured into the streets of Tehran by the hundreds of thousands, demanding free, democratic government. Axworthy explains how that outpouring of support for an end to tyranny in Iran paused and then moved on to other areas in the region like Egypt and Libya, leaving Iran's leadership unchanged. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. Axworthy takes readers through the major periods in Iranian history over the last thirty years: the overthrow of the old regime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the present day, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important in modern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Revolutionary Iran is both richly textured and from one of the leading authorities on the region; combining an expansive scope with the most accessible and definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.

Persian Gardens And Pavilions

Author: Mohammad Gharipour
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857733206
Size: 23.41 MB
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From Timur’s tent in Samarqand to Shah ‘Abbas’s palace in Isfahan and Humayun’s tomb in Delhi, the pavilion has been an integral part of Persianate gardens since its earliest appearance at the Achaemenid garden in Pasargadae in the sixth century BC. Here, Mohammad Gharipour places both the garden and the pavilion within their historical, literary and artistic contexts, emphasizing the importance of the pavilion, which has hitherto been overlooked in the study of Iranian historical architecture. _x000D_ _x000D_ Starting with an examination of the depictions and representations of gardens in religious texts, Gharipour analyses the how the idea of the garden developed from the model of pre-Islamic gardens in Achaemenid and Sassanian Persia to its mentions in the Zoroastrian text of Aban Yasht and on to its central role as paradise in the Qur’an. Continuing on with an exploration of gardens and pavilions in Persian poetry, Gharipour offers in-depth analysis of their literal and metaphorical values. It is in the poetry of major Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Naser Khosrow, Sa’di, Rumi and Hafez that Gharipour finds that whilst gardens are praised for their spiritual values, they also contain significant symbolic worth in terms of temporal wealth and power. Persian Gardens and Pavilions then goes onto examine the garden and the pavilion as reflected in Persian miniature painting, sculpture and carpets, as well as accounts of travelers to Persia. With masters such as Bizhad representing daily life as well as the more mystical prose and poetry in, for example, Sa’di’s Bustan (The Orchard) and Golestan (The Rose Garden), the garden and the pavilion can be seen to have crucial semiotic significances and cultural meanings. But in addition to this, they also point to historical patterns of patronage and ownership which were of central importance in the diplomatic and social life of the royal courts of Persia. _x000D_ _x000D_ Gharipour thereby highlights the metaphorical, spiritual, symbolic and religious aspects of gardens, as well as their more materialistic and economic functions. This book reaches back through Persia’s rich history to explore the material and psychological relationships between human beings, pavilions and gardens, and will be a valuable resource for Art History, Architecture and Iranian Studies._x000D_