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The Historiography Of Persian Architecture

Author: Mohammad Gharipour
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131742722X
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Historiography is the study of the methodology of writing history, the development of the discipline of history, and the changing interpretations of historical events in the works of individual historians. Exploring the historiography of Persian art and architecture requires a closer look at a diverse range of sources, including chronicles, historical accounts, travelogues, and material evidence coming from archaeological excavations. The Historiography of Persian Architecture highlights the political, cultural, and intellectual contexts that lie behind the written history of Persian architecture in the twentieth century, presenting a series of investigations on issues related to historiography. This book addresses the challenges, complexities, and contradictions regarding historical and geographical diversity of Persian architecture, including issues lacking in the 20th century historiography of Iran and neighbouring countries. This book not only illustrates different trends in Persian architecture but also clarifies changing notions of research in this field. Aiming to introduce new tools of analysis, the book offers fresh insights into the discipline, supported by historical documents, archaeological data, treatises, and visual materials. It brings together well-established and emerging scholars from a broad range of academic spheres, in order to question and challenge pre-existing historiographical frameworks, particularly through specific case studies. Overall, it provides a valuable contribution to the study of Persian architecture, simultaneously revisiting past literature and advancing new approaches. This book would be of interest to students and scholars of Middle East and Iranian Studies, as well as Architectural History, including Islamic architecture and historiography.

Persian Gardens And Pavilions

Author: Mohammad Gharipour
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857733206
Size: 54.63 MB
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From Timur’s tent in Samarqand to Shah ‘Abbas’s palace in Isfahan and Humayun’s tomb in Delhi, the pavilion has been an integral part of Persianate gardens since its earliest appearance at the Achaemenid garden in Pasargadae in the sixth century BC. Here, Mohammad Gharipour places both the garden and the pavilion within their historical, literary and artistic contexts, emphasizing the importance of the pavilion, which has hitherto been overlooked in the study of Iranian historical architecture. _x000D_ _x000D_ Starting with an examination of the depictions and representations of gardens in religious texts, Gharipour analyses the how the idea of the garden developed from the model of pre-Islamic gardens in Achaemenid and Sassanian Persia to its mentions in the Zoroastrian text of Aban Yasht and on to its central role as paradise in the Qur’an. Continuing on with an exploration of gardens and pavilions in Persian poetry, Gharipour offers in-depth analysis of their literal and metaphorical values. It is in the poetry of major Persian poets such as Ferdowsi, Naser Khosrow, Sa’di, Rumi and Hafez that Gharipour finds that whilst gardens are praised for their spiritual values, they also contain significant symbolic worth in terms of temporal wealth and power. Persian Gardens and Pavilions then goes onto examine the garden and the pavilion as reflected in Persian miniature painting, sculpture and carpets, as well as accounts of travelers to Persia. With masters such as Bizhad representing daily life as well as the more mystical prose and poetry in, for example, Sa’di’s Bustan (The Orchard) and Golestan (The Rose Garden), the garden and the pavilion can be seen to have crucial semiotic significances and cultural meanings. But in addition to this, they also point to historical patterns of patronage and ownership which were of central importance in the diplomatic and social life of the royal courts of Persia. _x000D_ _x000D_ Gharipour thereby highlights the metaphorical, spiritual, symbolic and religious aspects of gardens, as well as their more materialistic and economic functions. This book reaches back through Persia’s rich history to explore the material and psychological relationships between human beings, pavilions and gardens, and will be a valuable resource for Art History, Architecture and Iranian Studies._x000D_

Islamic Architecture In Iran

Author: Saeid Khaghani
Publisher: Tauris Academic Studies
ISBN: 9781848857292
Size: 37.23 MB
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The architecture of the Islamic world is predominantly considered in terms of a dual division between "tradition" and "modernity" - a division which, Saeid Khaghani here argues, has shaped and limited the narrative applied to this architecture. Khaghani introduces and reconsiders the mosques of eighth- to fifteenth-century Iran in terms of poststructural theory and developments in historiography in order to develop a brand new dialectical framework. Using the examples of mosques such as the Friday Mosques in Isfahan and Yazd as well as the Imam mosque in Isfahan, Khaghani presents a new way of thinking about and discussing Islamic architecture, making this valuable reading for all interested in the study of the art, architecture, and material culture of the Islamic world.

Iran In The 20th Century

Author: Touraj Atabaki
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857731874
Size: 18.64 MB
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Political upheaval has marked Iran’s history throughout the twentieth century. The country has been ravaged by two world wars and the brutal Iran-Iraq War which cost tens of thousands of lives. There was a Constitutional Revolution in 1905-1909 and coups in 1921 and 1953, when Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi took absolute power, followed by yet another revolution in 1979 when Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed the Islamic Republic. Wars, revolutions, coups and the impact of modernism have transformed power relations among the political and military elite and have led to radical political, social, cultural, religious and change throughout state and society. These upheavals have shaped Iran’s historiography, just as they have the country’s history. Originally based on oral and written sources, which underpinned traditional genealogical and dynastic history, Iran’s historiography was transformed in the early 20th century with the development of a ‘new’ school of presenting history. Here emphasis shifted from the anecdotal story-telling genre to social, political, economic, cultural and religious history-writing. A new understanding of the nation state and the importance of identity and foreign relations in defining Iran’s place in the modern world all served to transform the perspective of Iranian historiography. Touraj Atabaki here brings together a range of rich contributions from international scholars who cover the leading themes of the historiography of 20th-century Iran, including constitutional reform and revolution, literature and architecture, identity, women and gender, nationalism, modernism, Orientalism, Marxism and Islamism.

Iran

Author: Homa Katouzian
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136172904
Size: 51.31 MB
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This book offers a view of Iran through politics, history and literature, showing how the three angles combine. Iran, being a revolutionary society, experienced two great revolutions within the short span of just seventy years, from the 1900s to the 1970s. Both were massive revolts of the society against the state; the main objective of the first being to establish lawful government to make modernisation possible, and the second, to overthrow the absolute and arbitrary state, though this time mainly under the banner of religion and Marxism-Leninism and anti-Westernism. Neither of them succeeded in their lofty ideals for reasons that are explained and analysed within. The author also offers a detailed description of Iran’s short-term society, examining the political and intellectual lives of two of the most remarkable intellectuals-cum-politicians of the twentieth century. This book provides an overview of modern Persian literature, both poetry and prose, and discusses the works of three of the most remarkable Persian poets and writers of the period. It considers classical Persian literature through the great variety of its form and substance, and neo-classical literary developments in the nineteenth century, covering the whole history of Persian literature. This is crowned in the last chapter by the love poetry of one of the greatest Persian poets. Iran will be of interest to students and scholars of Iranian studies and Middle East Politics.

The Oxford Handbook Of Iranian History

Author: Touraj Daryaee
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199732159
Size: 44.89 MB
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This handbook is a guide to Iran's complex history. The book emphasizes the large-scale continuities of Iranian history while also describing the important patterns of transformation that have characterized Iran's past.

Domesticity And Consumer Culture In Iran

Author: Pamela Karimi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415781833
Size: 34.52 MB
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"Exploring the process of Iran's modernization through the double lens of domesticity and consumer culture, Pamela Karimi demonstrates the extent to which the Iranian house has served as the place of encounter with the "other" and of reconsideration of the nation as "home." Domesticity and Consumer Culture in Iran examines the interplay between native aspirations, foreign influences, gender roles, consumer culture and women's education as they intersect with taste, fashion, domestic architecture and interior design in modern Iran. Throughout, ideas of consumer culture and gender are at its core, but other important socio-political subjects are examined in order to view Iran's modernization through the prism of its people's private lives. Presenting a new perspective on the 1979 Iranian revolution, re-read vis-a-vis the opinions of Shiite religious scholars, the Left, and the revolutionary elites, this book demonstrates how Iranians have contested the public-private dichotomy as manifested in the Islamic Republic's texts, images, and actual physical spaces"--

Persian Kingship And Architecture

Author: Sussan Babaie
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857734776
Size: 54.49 MB
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Since the Shah went into exile and the Islamic Republic was established in 1979 in the wake of the Iranian Revolution, the very idea of monarchy in Iran has been contentious. Yet, as Persian Kingship and Architecture argues, the institution of kingship has historically played a pivotal role in articulating the abstract notion of ‘Iran’ since antiquity. These ideas surrounding kingship and nation have, in turn, served as a unifying cultural force despite shifting political and religious allegiances. Through analyses of palaces, mausolea, art, architectural decoration and urban design the authors show how architecture was appropriated by different rulers as an integral part of their strategies of legitimising power. They refer to a variety of examples, from the monuments of Persepolis under the Achaemenids, the Sassanian palaces at Kish, the Safavid public square of Isfahan, the Qajar palaces at Shiraz and to the modernisation and urban agendas of the Pahlavis. Drawing on archaeology, ancient, medieval, early modern and modern architectural history, both Islamic and secular, this book is indispensable for all those interested in Iranian studies and visual culture.

Revolutionary Iran

Author: Michael Axworthy
Publisher: Allen Lane
ISBN: 0199322260
Size: 27.82 MB
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The Iranian Revolution of 1979 was a defining moment of the modern era. Its success unleashed a wave of Islamist fervor across the Middle East and signaled a sharp decline in the appeal of Western ideologies in the Islamic world. And the reaction it inspired testified to its importance: aswith the Russian and French revolutions, outsiders tried to crush it in its crib. A year after the mullahs' assumption of power, Iraq, with aid from other Arab states and the US, declared war on Iran. Yet the revolution prevailed, and the Islamic Republic persists to this day. And despite the deeprifts separating Sunnis and Shiites, the regime motivated successive waves of revolutionary Islamism across the entire region, from Afghanistan in the 1980s to Lebanon in the 200s to Egypt to Algeria today. In Revolutionary Iran, Michael Axworthy offers a richly textured and authoritative history of Iran from the 1979 revolution to the present. After an opening section that focuses on the sources of the revolution, Axworthy takes readers through the major periods of the era: the overthrow of the oldregime and the creation of the new one; the Iran-Iraq war; the reconstruction era following the war; the reformist wave led by Mohammed Khatami; and the current era, in which reactionaries have re-established control. Throughout, he emphasizes that the Iranian revolution was centrally important inmodern history because it provided the world with a clear model of development that was not rooted in Western ideologies. Whereas the world's major revolutions of the previous two centuries had been fuelled by Western, secular ideologies, the Iranian Revolution drew its inspiration from Islam. Botherudite and accessible, Revolutionary Iran is the definitive account of this epoch in all its humanity.