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The Horse The Wheel And Language

Author: David W. Anthony
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831104
Size: 41.51 MB
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Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization. Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.

The Horse The Wheel And Language

Author: David W. Anthony
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 069114818X
Size: 74.39 MB
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Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization. Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.

The Horse The Wheel And Language

Author: David W. Anthony
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780691058870
Size: 17.69 MB
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Argues that the domestication of the horse and the use of the wheel by the prehistoric peoples of the central Eurasian steppe grasslands facilitated the spread of the Proto-Indo-European language throughout civilization.

How Ancient Europeans Saw The World

Author: Peter S. Wells
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400844770
Size: 17.58 MB
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The peoples who inhabited Europe during the two millennia before the Roman conquests had established urban centers, large-scale production of goods such as pottery and iron tools, a money economy, and elaborate rituals and ceremonies. Yet as Peter Wells argues here, the visual world of these late prehistoric communities was profoundly different from those of ancient Rome's literate civilization and today's industrialized societies. Drawing on startling new research in neuroscience and cognitive psychology, Wells reconstructs how the peoples of pre-Roman Europe saw the world and their place in it. He sheds new light on how they communicated their thoughts, feelings, and visual perceptions through the everyday tools they shaped, the pottery and metal ornaments they decorated, and the arrangements of objects they made in their ritual places--and how these forms and patterns in turn shaped their experience. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World offers a completely new approach to the study of Bronze Age and Iron Age Europe, and represents a major challenge to existing views about prehistoric cultures. The book demonstrates why we cannot interpret the structures that Europe's pre-Roman inhabitants built in the landscape, the ways they arranged their settlements and burial sites, or the complex patterning of their art on the basis of what these things look like to us. Rather, we must view these objects and visual patterns as they were meant to be seen by the ancient peoples who fashioned them.

By Steppe Desert And Ocean

Author: Barry Cunliffe
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199689172
Size: 12.61 MB
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By Steppe, Desert, and Ocean is nothing less than the story of how humans first started building the globalized world we know today. Set on a huge continental stage, from Europe to China, it is a tale covering over 10,000 years, from the origins of farming around 9000 BC to the expansion of the Mongols in the thirteenth century AD. An unashamedly 'big history', it charts the development of European, Near Eastern, and Chinesecivilizations and the growing links between them by way of the Indian Ocean, the silk Roads, and the great steppe corridor (which crucially allowed horse riders to travel from Mongolia to the Great Hungarian Plainwithin a year). Along the way, it is also the story of the rise and fall of empires, the development of maritime trade, and the shattering impact of predatory nomads on their urban neighbours. Above all, as this immense historical panorama unfolds, we begin to see in clearer focus those basic underlying factors - the acquisitive nature of humanity, the differing environments in which people live, and the dislocating effect of even slight climatic variation - which havedriven change throughout the ages, and which help us better understand our world today.

Archaeology And Language

Author: Colin Renfrew
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521386753
Size: 74.30 MB
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Analyzes the relationships between language groups, compares language development with archaeological information, and speculates on population movements

A Bronze Age Landscape In The Russian Steppes

Author: David W. Anthony
Publisher: Monumenta Archaeologica
ISBN: 9781938770050
Size: 28.29 MB
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"The Samara Valley Project (SVP) was a US-Russian archaeological investigation in the steppes east of Samara, Russia between 1995 and 2002. This 21-author volume is the project's final report. It describes the changing organization and subsistence resources of pastoral steppe economies from the Eneolithic (4500 BC) through the Late Bronze Age (1900-1200 BC) across a steppe-and-river valley landscape in the middle Volga region, with particular attention to the role of agriculture during the unusual episode of sedentary, settled pastoralism that spread across the Eurasian steppes with the Srubnaya (Timber-Grave) and Andronovo cultures (1900-1200 BC). We excavated a permanently occupied Srubnaya domestic residence at Krasnosamarskoe dated about 1900-1700 BC and a series of contemporaneous seasonal Srubnaya herding camps. This is the first English-language monograph that describes seasonal and permanent LBA settlements in the Russian steppes. We analyze economic resources (wild and domesticated plants and animals, copper mining and metallurgy) and their seasonal exploitation, supplemented by human biological data from Eneolithic-through-Bronze Age pathologies related to diet, health, and activities, as well as dietary stable isotopes, cranio-facial measurements, and ancient DNA. Three important discoveries were that agriculture played no role in the LBA diet across the region, a surprise given the settled residential pattern; second that a winter ritual involving dog and wolf sacrifices, possibly related to male initiation ceremonies, occurred uniquely at Krasnosamarskoe; and third that overlapping spheres of obligation, cooperation, and affiliation operated at different scales to integrate groups defined by politics, economics, and ritual behaviors"--

The Kurgan Culture And The Indo Europeanization Of Europe

Author: Marija Gimbutas
Publisher: Study of Man
ISBN:
Size: 32.61 MB
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On the Origins of North Indo-EuropeansThe Indo-Europeans ? Archaeological ProblemsThe Relative Chronology of Neolithic and Chalcolithic Cultures in Eastern Europe North of the Balkan Peninsula and the Black SeaProto-Indo-European Culture ? The Kurgan Culture During the Fifth, Fourth, and Third Millenium B.C.Old Europe c. 7000-3500 B.C. ? The Earliest European Civilization Before the Infiltration of the Indo-European PeoplesThe Beginnings of the Bronze Age of Europe and the Indo-Europeans 3500-2500 B.C.An Archeaologists View of *PIE in 1975The First Wave of Eurasian Steppe Pastoralists into Copper Age EuropeThe Three Waves of the Kurgan People into Old Europe, 4500-2500 B.C.The Kurgan Wave #2 (c.3400-3200 B.C.) into Europe and the Following Transformation of CulturePrimary and Secondary Homeland of the Indo-Europeans, Comments on Gamkrelidze-Ivanov ArticlesRemarks on the Ethnogenesis of the Indo-Europeans in EuropeAccounting for a Great ChangeReview of Archaeology and Language by C. RenfrewThe Collision of Two IdeologiesThe Fall and Transformation of Old Europe.

The Indo European Controversy

Author: Asya Pereltsvaig
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107054532
Size: 76.57 MB
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This book challenges media-celebrated evolutionary studies linking Indo-European languages to Neolithic Anatolia, instead defending traditional practices in historical linguistics.

The Horse In Human History

Author: Pita Kelekna
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521736299
Size: 22.37 MB
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The horse is surely the "aristocrat" of animals domesticated by man. This book documents the origins of horse domestication on the Pontic-Caspian steppes some 6,000 years ago and the consequent migration of equestrian tribes across Eurasia to the borders of sedentary states. Horse-chariotry and cavalry in effect changed the nature of warfare in the civilizations of the Middle East, India, and China. But, beyond the battlefield, horsepower also afforded great advances in transport, agriculture, industry, and science. Rapidity of horse communications forged far-flung equestrian empires, where language, law, weights, measures, and writing systems were standardized and revolutionary technologies and ideas were disseminated across continents. Always recognizing this dual character of horsepower - both destructive and constructive - the politico-military and economic importance of the horse is discussed in the rise of Hittite, Achaemenid, Chinese, Greco-Roman, Arab, Mongol, and Turkic states. Following Columbian contact, Old and New World cultures are contrastively evaluated in terms of presence or absence of the horse. And Spanish conquest of the horseless Americas is seen as the model for subsequent European equestrian colonization of horseless territories around the planet.