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The Hydrogen Bond And The Water Molecule

Author: Yves Marechal
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080469294
Size: 38.86 MB
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The Hydrogen Bond and the Water Molecule offers a synthesis of what is known and currently being researched on the topic of hydrogen bonds and water molecules. The most simple water molecular, H2O, is a fascinating but poorly understood molecule. Its unique ability to attract an exceptionally large number of hydrogen bonds induces the formation of a dense "hydrogen bond network" that has the potential to modify the properties of the surrounding molecules and their reactivities. The crucial role that water molecules play is described in this book. The author begins by providing an overview of the thermodynamical and structural properties of H-bonds before examining their much less known dynamical properties, which makes them appear as centres of reactivity. Methods used to observe these components are also reviewed. In the second part of the book the role played by the dense H-bond network developed by H2O molecules is examined. First in ice, where it has important atmospheric consequences, then in liquid water, and finally in macromolecules where it sheds some original light on the fundamental question "How is it that without water and hydrogen bonds life would not exist?". This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of physics, chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology. It can also serve as a teaching aid for students attending course in chemical physics, chemistry or molecular biology. Engineers involved the water industry would benefit from reading this book, as would scientists working in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and materials. * overview of what is known and being researched on the topic of hydrogen bonds and water molecules * reviews methods used to observe interactions between water molecules and hydrogen bonds * examines role of H-bond network developed by H2O molecules

The Nature Of The Hydrogen Bond

Author: Gastone Gilli
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199558965
Size: 44.42 MB
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This book defines, for the first time, the rules for predicting H-bond energies and geometries from the properties of the interacting molecules. This new knowledge is used to investigate the molecular mechanisms in systems relevant to chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, crystallography, and material sciences.

Transport And Reactivity Of Solutions In Confined Hydrosystems

Author: Lionel Mercury
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400775342
Size: 29.49 MB
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The present work reflects a multi-disciplinary effort to address the topic of confined hydrosystems developed with a cross-fertilization panel of physics, chemists, biologists, soil and earth scientists. Confined hydrosystems include all situations in natural settings wherein the extent of the liquid phase is limited so that the solid-liquid and/or liquid-air interfaces may be critical to the properties of the whole system. Primarily, this so-called “residual” solution is occluded in pores/channels in such a way that decreases its tendency to evaporation, and makes it long-lasting in arid (Earth deserts) and hyper-arid (Mars soils) areas. The associated physics is available from domains like capillarity, adsorption and wetting, and surface forces. However, many processes are still to understand due to the close relationship between local structure and matter properties, the subtle interplay between the host and the guest, the complex intermingling among static reactivity and migration pathway. Expert contributors from Israel, Russia, Europe and US discuss the behaviour of water and aqueous solutes at different scale, from the nanometric range of carbon nanotubes and nanofluidics to the regional scale of aquifers reactive flow in sedimentary basins. This scientific scope allowed the group of participants with very different background to tackle the confinement topic at different scales. The book is organized according to four sections that include: i) flow, from nano- to mega-scale; ii) ions, hydration and transport; iii) in-pores/channels cavitation; iv) crystallization under confinement. Most of contributions relates to experimental works at different resolution, interpreted through classic thermodynamics and intermolecular forces. Simulation techniques are used to explore the atomic scale of interfaces and the migration in the thinnest angstrom-wide channels.

Hydrogen Bond Networks

Author: Marie-Claire Bellisent-Funel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401583323
Size: 26.63 MB
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The almost universal presence of water in our everyday lives and the very `common' nature of its presence and properties possibly deflects attention from the fact that it has a number of very unusual characteristics which, furthermore, are found to be extremely sensitive to physical parameters, chemical environment and other influences. Hydrogen-bonding effects, too, are not restricted to water, so it is necessary to investigate other systems as well, in order to understand the characteristics in a wider context. Hydrogen Bond Networks reflects the diversity and relevance of water in subjects ranging from the fundamentals of condensed matter physics, through aspects of chemical reactivity to structure and function in biological systems.

Water

Author: Denis Le Bihan
Publisher: Pan Stanford Publishing
ISBN: 981430316X
Size: 11.55 MB
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The main objective of this book is to bring together multidisciplinary contributions from leading authorities on the properties and roles of water in cell systems which are otherwise dispersed in the literature and difficult to gather. The authors are drawn from areas of physics, chemistry, biology and physiology, where water plays a central role. The book focuses on current research and developments in the theoretical and experimental studies of water in biological systems and compounds, such as interaction with hydrophobic or hydrophilic structures, protein and membrane surfaces. It provides insights into the importance of water in cellular processes and physiology and, ultimately, in life, brain function, and health.

Snow Ice And Other Wonders Of Water

Author: Ivar Olovsson
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814749389
Size: 47.69 MB
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The book illustrates the fascinating world of the different forms of water — from ice and snow to liquid water. The water molecule, H2O, is the second most common molecule in the Universe (behind hydrogen, H2) and ice is the most abundant solid material. Snow and ice appear in a countless large number of different shapes and with properties which can be quite different. Detailed knowledge of the properties of snow is of great importance for the Sami people involved in reindeer herding and several hundred names are used to characterize the different types. The properties of ice and liquid water are very special and unique in several respects. In contrast to most other substances, the density of ice is lower than that of liquid water, which has many very important consequences in our daily life. Water plays a unique role in chemistry and although tremendous research has been spent on this seemingly simple substance, there are still many unsolved questions about the structure of liquid water. The special properties of water are due to hydrogen bonding between the H2O molecules, and this book may be seen as a tribute to the hydrogen bond. The general properties of the hydrogen bond are treated in three separate papers. The hydrogen bond is of fundamental importance in biological systems since all living matter has evolved from and exists in an aqueous environment and hydrogen bonds are involved in most biological processes. There is a hundred times more water molecules in our bodies than the sum of all the other molecules put together. Contents: There are Many Different Types of SnowEarly Snow Crystal ObservationsArtificial Snow CrystalsSnow and Ice Crystals in NatureSnow for Pleasure and ArtThe Ice Surface and Formation of Ice SpikesStructure and Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and IcePhysical Properties of Water and Ice; Significance in NatureThe Water Molecule is UniqueThe Role of the Lone Pairs in Hydrogen BondingComparison of the Proton Transfer Path in Hydrogen Bonds from Theoretical Potential Energy Surfaces and the Concept of Conservation of Bond OrdersThe Hydrogen Bond in the Solid State Readership: Interested lay readers. Key Features:The book differs from most books on snow as it covers early, historical observations as well as present active research. Some of the snow pictures are unique and illustrate fundamental physical factsThe beauty of snow crystals is amply illustrated, but basic facts about structure and properties are treated as well. Why does ice float on water? Why is the maximum density of water at +4°C?Keywords:Snow;Ice;Water;Hydrogen Bond

Spectroscopy Of Biological Molecules

Author: Camille Sandorfy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400964900
Size: 62.60 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of the NATO-Advanced Study Institute on the "Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules", which took place on July 4-15, 1983 in Acquafredda di Maratea, Italy. The institute concentrated on three main subiects: the structure and dymanics of DNA, proteins, and visual and plant pigments. Its timeliness has been linked to rapid advances in certain spectroscopic techniques which yielded a consider able amount of new information on the structure and inter actions of biologically important molecules. Among these techniques Fourier transform infrared, resonance and surface enhanced 'Raman spectroscopies, Raman microscopy and micro probing, time resolved techniques, two photon and ultrafast electronic, and C-13, N-15 and P-31 NMR spectroscopies and kinetic and static IR difference spectroscopy receiced a great deal of attention at the Institute. In addition, an entirely new technique, near-millimeter-wave spectroscopy has been presented and discussed. Two introductory quantum chemical lectures, one on the structure of water in DNA, and another pn the energy bands in DNA and proteins set the stage for the experimentally oriented lectures that followed. Fundamental knowledge on hydrogen bonding was the topic of two other lectures. Panel discussions were held on the structure and confor mations of DNA, metal-DNA adducts and proteins and on visual pigments. Many scientists who normally attend different conferences and never meet, met at Aquafredda di Maratea. We feel, that at the end of our Institute a synthetic vi~w emerged on the powerful spectroscopic and theoretical methods which are now available for the study of biological molecules.

Proton Transfer In Hydrogen Bonded Systems

Author: T. Bountis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461534445
Size: 74.39 MB
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Charge transport through the transfer of protons between molecules has long been recognized as a fundamental process, which plays an important role in many chemical reactions. In particular, proton transfer through Hydrogen (H-) bonds has been identified as the main mechanism, via which many bio logical functions are performed and many properties of such basic substances as proteins and ice can be understood. In this volume, several of these important aspects of the H-bond are rep resented. As the division in different sections already indicates, present day research in proton teansfer in biochemistry, biology, and the physics of water and ice remains highly active and very exciting. Nearly a decade ago, a novel approach to the study of collective proton motion in H-bonded systems was proposed, in which this phenomenon was explained by the propagation of certain coherent structures called solitons. In the years that followed, the approach ofsoliton dynamics was further extended and developed by many researchers around the world, into a legitimate and useful method for the analysis of proton transfer in H-bonded systems. Dr. Stephanos Pnevmatikos, the original Director of this ARW, was one of the pioneers in the application ofsoliton ideas to the study ofcharge transport through H-bonds. Having used similar concepts himself in his research on 2D lattices) he was convinced energy transfer through molecular chains (and that solitons can play an important role in enhancing our understanding of protonic conductivity.

Hydrogen Bonding And Transfer In The Excited State

Author: Ke-Li Han
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119972921
Size: 44.89 MB
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This book gives an extensive description of the state-of-the-art in research on excited-state hydrogen bonding and hydrogen transfer in recent years. Initial chapters present both the experimental and theoretical investigations on the excited-state hydrogen bonding structures and dynamics of many organic and biological chromophores. Following this, several chapters describe the influences of the excited-state hydrogen bonding on various photophysical processes and photochemical reactions, for example: hydrogen bonding effects on fluorescence emission behaviors and photoisomerization; the role of hydrogen bonding in photosynthetic water splitting; photoinduced electron transfer and solvation dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids; and hydrogen bonding barrier crossing dynamics at bio-mimicking surfaces. Finally, the book examines experimental and theoretical studies on the nature and control of excited-state hydrogen transfer in various systems. Hydrogen Bonding and Transfer in the Excited State is an essential overview of this increasingly important field of study, surveying the entire field over 2 volumes, 40 chapters and 1200 pages. It will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers in photochemistry, photobiology, photophysics, physical chemistry and chemical physics.