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The Impact Legitimacy And Effectiveness Of Eu Counter Terrorism

Author: Fiona de Londras
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317524640
Size: 74.40 MB
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Counter-terrorism law and policy has been prominent and widespread in the years following 9/11, touching on many areas of everyday life from policing and border control to financial transactions and internet governance. The European Union is a major actor in contemporary counter-terrorism, including through its development of counter-terrorism laws for application within the Union. This book undertakes a multi-disciplinary and empirically informed analysis of the impact, legitimacy and effectiveness of EU counter-terrorism. Taking into account legal, societal, operational and democratic perspectives, this collection connects theoretical and practical perspectives to produce an interdisciplinary and multi-stakeholder study of how we might measure and understand the impact, legitimacy and effectiveness of EU counter-terrorism. Bringing together a select group of experts in the field, particular emphasis is placed on understanding the practical experience of implementing and assessing these measures gathered from and with end users, including law-makers, policy-makers, security services, industry partners and civil society. This edited collection will be of great relevance to scholars and policy makers with an interest in counter-terrorism law, EU law and security studies.

Digital Privacy Terrorism And Law Enforcement

Author: Simon Hale-Ross
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135111896X
Size: 46.55 MB
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This book examines the UK’s response to terrorist communication. Its principle question asks, has individual privacy and collective security been successfully managed and balanced? The author begins by assessing several technologically-based problems facing British law enforcement agencies, including use of the Internet; the existence of ‘darknet’; untraceable Internet telephone calls and messages; smart encrypted device direct messaging applications; and commercially available encryption software. These problems are then related to the traceability and typecasting of potential terrorists, showing that law enforcement agencies are searching for needles in the ever-expanding haystacks. To this end, the book examines the bulk powers of digital surveillance introduced by the Investigatory Powers Act 2016. The book then moves on to assess whether these new powers and the new legislative safeguards introduced are compatible with international human rights standards. The author creates a ‘digital rights criterion’ from which to challenge the bulk surveillance powers against human rights norms. Lord Carlile of Berriew CBE QC in recommending this book notes this particular legal advancement, commenting that rightly so the author concludes the UK has fairly balanced individual privacy with collective security. The book further analyses the potential impact on intelligence exchange between the EU and the UK, following Brexit. Using the US as a case study, the book shows that UK laws must remain within the ambit of EU law and the Court of Justice of the European Union's (CJEU's) jurisprudence, to maintain the effectiveness of the exchange. It addresses the topics with regard to terrorism and counterterrorism methods and will be of interest to researchers, academics, professionals, and students researching counterterrorism and digital electronic communications, international human rights, data protection, and international intelligence exchange.

Anti Terrorism Law And Foreign Terrorist Fighters

Author: Jessie Blackbourn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351605437
Size: 22.78 MB
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Jessie Blackbourn is a research fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies at the University of Oxford, UK. Deniz Kayis is currently the Associate for Chief Justice Allsop AO of the Federal Court of Australia. Nicola McGarrity is a senior lecturer and the Director of the Terrorism Law Reform Project at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

Domestic Counter Terrorism In A Global World

Author: Daniel Alati
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134850387
Size: 67.52 MB
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Although both Canada and the United Kingdom had experienced terrorism prior to the attacks of 9/11 and already had in place extensive provisions to deal with terrorism, the events of that day led to the enactment of new and expansive counter-terrorism legislation being enacted in both jurisdictions. This book explores these changes to counter-terrorism laws and policies in the United Kingdom and Canada in order to demonstrate that despite the force of international legal instruments, including the heavily scrutinized UN Security Council Resolution 1373, the evolution of counter-terrorism policies in different jurisdictions is best analysed and understood as a product of local institutional structures and cultures. The book compares legal and political structures and cultures within Canada and the United Kingdom. It analyses variations in the evolution of post-9/11 counter-terrorism measures in the two jurisdictions and explores the domestic reasons for them. While focus is primarily geared towards security certificates and bail with recognizance/investigative hearings in Canada, and detention without trial, control orders and TPIMs in the United Kingdom , the use of secret evidence in the wider national security context (terrorist listing, civil litigation, criminal prosecutions, etc.) is also discussed. The book reveals how domestic structures and cultures, including the legal system, the relative stability of government, local human rights culture and geopolitical relationships all influence how counter-terrorism measures evolve. In this sense, the book utilizes a methodology that is both comparative and interdisciplinary by engaging in legal, political, historical and cultural analyses. This book will be particularly useful for target audiences in the fields of comparative law and criminal justice, counter-terrorism law, human rights law and international relations and politics.

Legitimacy And Drones

Author: Steven J. Barela
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317105877
Size: 28.62 MB
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Unmanned combat air vehicles, or in common parlance 'drones', have become a prominent instrument in US efforts to counter an objective (and subjective) cross-border terrorist threat with lethal force. As a result, critical questions abound on the legitimacy of their use. In a series of multidisciplinary essays by scholars with an extensive knowledge of international norms, this book explores the question of legitimacy through the conceptual lenses of legality, morality and efficacy, it then closes with the consideration of a policy proposal aimed at incorporating all three indispensable elements. The importance of this inquiry cannot be overstated. Non-state actors fully understand that attacking the much more powerful state requires moving the conflict away from the traditional battlefield where they are at an enormous disadvantage. Those engaging in terrorism seek to goad the ruling government into an overreaction, or abuse of power, to trigger a destabilization via an erosion of its legitimacy. Thus defending the target of legitimacy”in this case, insuring the use of deadly force is constrained by valid limiting principles”represents an essential strategic interest. This book seeks to come to grips with the new reality of drone warfare by exploring if it can be used to preserve, rather than eat away at, legitimacy. After an extensive analysis of the three key parameters in twelve chapters, the practical proposition of establishing a 'Drone Court' is put forward and examined as a way of pursuing the goal of integrating these essential components to defend the citizenry and the legitimacy of the government at the same time.

Precision Strike Warfare And International Intervention

Author: Mike Aaronson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317912950
Size: 63.16 MB
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This book explores whether the new capabilities made possible by precision-strike technologies are reshaping approaches to international intervention. Since the end of the Cold War, US technological superiority has led to a more proactive and, some would argue, high risk approach to international military intervention. New technologies including the capacity to mount precision military strikes from high-level bombing campaigns and, more recently, the selective targeting of individuals from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have facilitated air campaigns, supported by Special Forces, without the commitment of large numbers of troops on the ground. Such campaigns include, for example, NATO’s high-level aerial bombardment of Milosevic’s forces in Kosovo in 1999 and of Gaddafi’s in Libya in 2011, and the US operation involving Special Forces against Osama Bin Laden. The development of UAVs and electronic data intercept technologies has further expanded the potential scope of interventions, for example against Islamic militants in the tribal areas of Pakistan. This volume examines three key and interrelated dimensions of these new precision-strike capabilities: (1) the strategic and foreign policy drivers and consequences; (2) the legal and moral implications of the new capabilities; and (3), the implications for decision-making at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. This book will be of much interest to students of war and technology, air power, international intervention, security studies and IR.

The Financial War On Terrorism

Author: Nicholas Ryder
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134447043
Size: 67.35 MB
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On September 11, 2001, 19 terrorists committed the largest and deadliest terrorist attack in the United States of America. The response from the inter-national community, and in particular the US, was swift. President George Bush declared what has commonly been referred to as either the ‘War on Terror’ or the ‘Global War on Terror’ on September 20, 2001. Four days later, he instigated the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’. This book defines and identifies the so-called ‘Financial War on Terrorism’. It provides a critical review of the impact of counter-terrorist financing strategies enacted by both individual jurisdictions and international organisations. Taking a comparative approach, the book highlights the levels of compliance in each selected jurisdiction and organisation with the requirements of the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’. The book analyses measures introduced by the United Nations, including the UN sanctions against terrorists and the operation of its anti-terrorist sanctions committees, and the Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force. It also reviews the counter-terrorist financing measures of the European Union and the Council of Europe, paying particular attention to the Framework Decisions on Combating Terrorism, the Council Common Positions on Combating Terrorism and the EU Anti-Terrorism Sanctions Regime. The book goes on to review the measures put in place in the US following September 11, 2001. Offering a much-needed legal analysis of the measures enacted under the ‘Financial War on Terrorism’, this book is a valuable resource for those researching in law, terrorism studies, criminal justice, and finance.

Surveillance Counter Terrorism And Comparative Constitutionalism

Author: Fergal Davis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134095341
Size: 13.23 MB
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The decade after 11 September 2001 saw the enactment of counter-terrorism laws around the world. These laws challenged assumptions about public institutions, human rights and constitutional law. Those challenges are particularly apparent in the context of the increased surveillance powers granted to many law enforcement and intelligence agencies. This book brings together leading legal scholars in the field of counter-terrorism and constitutional law, and focuses their attention on the issue of surveillance. The breadth of topics covered in this collection include: the growth and diversification of mechanisms of mass surveillance, the challenges that technological developments pose for constitutionalism, new actors in the surveillance state (such as local communities and private organisations), the use of surveillance material as evidence in court, and the effectiveness of constitutional and other forms of review of surveillance powers. The book brings a strong legal focus to the debate surrounding surveillance and counter-terrorism, and draws important conclusions about the constitutional implications of the expansion of surveillance powers after 9/11.

The Impact Of Wto Membership

Author: Anastasia S. Loginova
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317097890
Size: 64.59 MB
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What lessons can be learnt from the accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) of Russia, China, and Ukraine? Were there any peculiarities in the adaptation of their economies to the rules and norms of the organisation, and what impact did it have on the world trade system? This detailed, systematic, and comparative analysis of the social and economic impact of the accession of these countries to the WTO addresses these questions, presenting an economic and legal analysis of the reasons and consequences of their joining the WTO. Comparative legal and economic methods are used to explore the social and economic causes and consequences of membership for post-communist states and to suggest ways in which new members can adapt to WTO standards. This work will be of interest to experts and students in the fields of economics, jurisprudence, and customs affairs.

Governance Of Arctic Offshore Oil And Gas

Author: Cécile Pelaudeix
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317125924
Size: 59.82 MB
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Global energy problems will remain a challenge in the coming decades. The impact of climate change and the melting of polar sea ice opening up access to offshore hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic Ocean, raises questions for both civil society and the scientific community over drilling opportunities in Arctic marine areas. Disparities in approach to the governance of oil and gas extraction in the Arctic arise from fundamental differences in histories, cultures, domestic constraints and substantive values and attitudes in the Arctic coastal states and sub-states. Differing political systems, legal traditions and societal beliefs with regard to energy security and economic development, environmental protection, legitimacy of decision making, and the ownership and respect of the rights of indigenous people, all affect how governance systems of oil and gas extraction are designed. Using a multidisciplinary approach and case studies from the USA, Norway, Russia, Canada, Greenland/Denmark and the EU, this book both examines the current governance of extraction and its effects and considers ways to enhance the efficiency of environmental management and public participation in this system.