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The Impact Of Scientific Evidence On The Criminal Trial

Author: Oriola Sallavaci
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317910907
Size: 16.58 MB
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This book explores challenges posed by the use of DNA evidence to the traditional features, procedures and principles of the criminal trial. It examines the limitations of existing theories of criminal trial processes in the face of increasing use of scientific evidence in the court room.? The research elucidates the interconnections at trial of three epistemologies, namely legal reasoning, as represented by counsel and trial judge, common sense manifested by the jury and scientific reasoning expounded by the expert witness. Sallavaci argues that while scientific reasoning is part of this hybrid of trial languages and practices, its extended use is producing specifically novel tensions which impact on the traditional criminal trial landscape. Through the lens of DNA evidence, the book investigates how far the use of scientific evidence in the fact finding process poses challenges for the adversarial character of the proceedings and rules of evidence; how it affects the role of the judge, jury and expert witness, as well as the principle of orality and continuity of the trial. In comparing the challenges faced in English common law trials to those of the USA, this book has international scope, and will be of great use and interest to students and researchers of Criminal Law and Practice, Policing, and the role of Forensics in Law.

Introduction To Forensic Dna Evidence For Criminal Justice Professionals

Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439899096
Size: 23.93 MB
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The use of DNA profiling in forensic cases has been considered the most innovative technique in forensic science since fingerprinting, yet for those with limited scientific knowledge, understanding DNA enough to utilize it properly can be a daunting task. Introduction to Forensic DNA Evidence for Criminal Justice Professionals is designed for nonscientific readers who need to learn how to effectively use forensic DNA in criminal cases. Written by a forensic scientist world renowned for her expertise in clothing examination, the book provides a balanced perspective on the weight of DNA evidence. Going beyond a simple explanation of the methodology, it arms attorneys and other criminal justice professionals with knowledge of the strengths and limitations of the evidence, including the danger in relying on DNA statistical probabilities in the determination of guilt. The book covers the most common DNA methods used in criminal trials today—nuclear DNA short tandem repeat (STR) techniques, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-STR profiling. It helps prosecutors know when to emphasize DNA evidence or proceed with trial in the absence of such evidence. It assists defense lawyers in knowing when to challenge DNA evidence and perhaps employ an independent expert, when to focus elsewhere, or when to secure the advantage of an early guilty plea. By imparting practical and theoretical knowledge in an accessible manner, the book demystifies the topic to help both sides of the adversarial system understand where DNA evidence fits within the context of the case.

Controversies In Innocence Cases In America

Author: Ms Sarah Lucy Cooper
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409463540
Size: 35.44 MB
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This volume brings together leading experts on the investigation, litigation and scholarly analysis of innocence cases in America, from legal, political and ethical perspectives. The contributors consider the challenges faced by the exoneration movement, causes of wrongful convictions, problems associated with investigating, proving, and defining ‘innocence’, and theories of reform. These issues are investigated from a multi-disciplinary perspective and with the aim of improving the American criminal justice system when it is faced with its most harrowing sight: an innocent defendant.

Forensic Science In Court

Author: Donald Hon. Shelton, Chief Judge
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1442201894
Size: 79.12 MB
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Forensic Science in Court explores the legal implications of forensic science—an increasingly important and complex part of the legal system. Judge Donald Shelton provides an accessible overview of the legal issues, then examines the strengths and limitations of various kinds of forensic science, including DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, hair, bite marks, tool marks, firearms and bullets, fire and arson investigation, and bloodstain evidence. Case studies illustrate the issues and their application in depth.

Forensic Science Under Siege

Author: Kelly Pyrek
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080471075
Size: 70.67 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Forensic science laboratories' reputations have increasingly come under fire. Incidents of tainted evidence, false reports, allegations of negligence, scientifically flawed testimony, or - worse yet - perjury in in-court testimony, have all served to cast a shadow over the forensic sciences. Instances of each are just a few of the quality-related charges made in the last few years. Forensic Science Under Siege is the first book to integrate and explain these problematic trends in forensic science. The issues are timely, and are approached from an investigatory, yet scholarly and research-driven, perspective. Leading experts are consulted and interviewed, including directors of highly visible forensic laboratories, as well as medical examiners and coroners who are commandeering the discussions related to these issues. Interviewees include Henry Lee, Richard Saferstein, Cyril Wecht, and many others. The ultimate consequences of all these pressures, as well as the future of forensic science, has yet to be determined. This book examines these challenges, while also exploring possible solutions (such as the formation of a forensic science consortium to address specific legislative issues). It is a must-read for all forensic scientists. Provides insight on the current state of forensic science, demands, and future direction as provided by leading experts in the field Consolidates the current state of standards and best-practices of labs across disciplines Discusses a controversial topic that must be addressed for political support and financial funding of forensic science to improve

Criminal Justice In America

Author: George F. Cole
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1337514888
Size: 48.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This concise introductory criminal justice text uses an interdisciplinary approach to introduce students to the field's foundations and individual components, as well as to many contemporary controversies in the justice system. Through the use of current issues, such as the Black Lives Matter movement, efforts to reform sentencing and reduce prison populations, and the impact of new technologies, this book highlights societal developments that pose new challenges for criminal justice professionals. Created as an alternative to more encyclopedic introductory texts, this reader-friendly bestseller incorporates ideas, themes, and theories from criminology, sociology, law, history, psychology, and political science. CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN AMERICA, Ninth Edition, teaches students to become better citizens by helping them think critically about what justice means in our society and how individuals can play a role in defining that meaning. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Blood Evidence

Author: Henry C. Lee
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN:
Size: 36.20 MB
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Uses case studies to examine how investigators collect genetic evidence and discusses how DNA has altered crime-solving and the court system as well as the ethical ramifications of cloning, genetic modification, and the death penalty.

Using Forensic Dna Evidence At Trial

Author: Jane Moira Taupin
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482255820
Size: 44.88 MB
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Using Forensic DNA Evidence at Trial: A Case Study Approach covers the most common DNA analysis methods used in criminal trials today, including STR techniques, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-STRs. It presents some novel techniques—including familial testing and analyzing domestic animal hair—that have been recently introduced in unique cases, each of which is outlined in detail. It also illustrates special issues related to forensic DNA evidence by using court proceedings such as trials and appeals, commissions of inquiry, and government and laboratory reviews. With forensic DNA analysis becoming increasingly important at trial, the lively and sometimes bizarre cases presented in this book have been carefully chosen to highlight specific concepts, methods, and interpretations used in DNA analysis. Sections throughout examine the nature of expertise with a special focus on the role of subjectivity in the interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, emphasizing cognitive bias and extraneous context. Using both convictions and exonerations as examples, the book also discusses the strengths and limitations of DNA evidence and testing. The book is written in an accessible manner for the non-scientific reader, such that criminal lawyers, judges, and forensic experts will all understand the nature of analysis and application of DNA evidence in a variety of court cases. Extensive references—including notable trial proceedings, cross references of cases, and specific forensic statistics—round out the book and help to provide a complete understanding of forensic DNA analysis and its current usage in the courtroom.

Forensic Science A Very Short Introduction

Author: Jim Fraser
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199558051
Size: 30.19 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Forensic science is a subject of wide fascination. What happens at a crime scene? How does DNA profiling work? How can it help solve crimes that happened 20 years ago? In forensic science, a criminal case can often hinge on a piece of evidence such as a hair, a blood trace, half a footprint, or a tyre mark. High profile cases such as the Stephen Lawrence enquiry and the Madeleine McCann case have attracted enormous media attention and enhanced this interest in recent years. However, the public understanding of forensic science is poor, and largely based on TV shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, which exploit high-tech imagery for dramatic effect. Forensic science is a complex activity at the interface of science and law. However, it also deals with real life issues and its results are interpreted within unique situations. Complex scientific findings must be considered carefully, dispassionately, and communicated with clarity, simplicity, and precision. In this Very Short Introduction, Jim Fraser introduces the concept of forensic science and explains how it is used in the investigation of crime. He begins at the crime scene itself, explaining the principles and processes of crime scene management. He explores how forensic scientists work; from the reconstruction of events to laboratory examinations. He considers the techniques they use, such as fingerprinting, and goes on to highlight the immense impact DNA profiling has had. Providing examples from forensic science cases in the UK, US, and other countries, he considers the techniques and challenges faced around the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Dna Evidence And Forensic Science

Author: David E. Newton
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438100191
Size: 62.60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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From the Publisher: Each volume of the Facts On File Library in a Book series is carefully designed to be a first-stop research source on important current issues. Written clearly and carefully so that even the most complex aspects of the topic are easily understandable, the books give the reader the essential information to begin work, plus the research tools needed to delve more deeply into the issues. Each book includes a history of the subject, biographical information on important figures in the field, a complete annotated bibliography, and a carefully designed index-everything the researcher needs to get down to work. Recent developments in forensic methods have revolutionized crime scene investigations so that one piece of forensic evidence can often determine an individual's guilt or innocence. Tests involving fingerprinting, polygraphs, ballistics, toxicology, voice analysis, DNA typing, and other techniques can be combined or used independently to provide information about a crime. Some of these methods have been known and used for many centuries; others have been developed only recently. Some procedures create highly valid and reliable results; others generate conclusions that may be uncertain at best or legally useless. DNA Evidence and Forensic Science examines the history and opinions surrounding the issue-from the early use of fingerprinting to identify civil servants to the latest advances in DNA typing in criminal investigations. Documents such as the Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 and contemporary case studies such as Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals provide multiple perspectives and decisions surrounding the issue while also plotting a course for the future of legislative action pertaining to DNA evidence and forensic science.