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The Impression Of Influence

Author: Justin Grimmer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400852668
Size: 71.85 MB
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Constituents often fail to hold their representatives accountable for federal spending decisions—even though those very choices have a pervasive influence on American life. Why does this happen? Breaking new ground in the study of representation, The Impression of Influence demonstrates how legislators skillfully inform constituents with strategic communication and how this facilitates or undermines accountability. Using a massive collection of Congressional texts and innovative experiments and methods, the book shows how legislators create an impression of influence through credit claiming messages. Anticipating constituents' reactions, legislators claim credit for programs that elicit a positive response, making constituents believe their legislator is effectively representing their district. This spurs legislators to create and defend projects popular with their constituents. Yet legislators claim credit for much more—they announce projects long before they begin, deceptively imply they deserve credit for expenditures they had little role in securing, and boast about minuscule projects. Unfortunately, legislators get away with seeking credit broadly because constituents evaluate the actions that are reported, rather than the size of the expenditures. The Impression of Influence raises critical questions about how citizens hold their political representatives accountable and when deception is allowable in a democracy.

The Impression Of Influence

Author: Justin Grimmer
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780691162614
Size: 15.47 MB
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"This important book provides novel insights into the strategic interactions among legislators, citizens, and the bureaucracy that shape federal spending. Grimmer, Westwood, and Messing deploy new observational and experimental analyses to understand which legislators are most likely to seek government spending in their districts, how they advertise this information, and what effect it has on their electoral fortunes."--Gregory A. Huber, Yale University "Drawing from a cognitive model of voter attention and learning, "The Impression of Influence" generates a system of credit claiming that far surpasses prior models. Providing a compelling view of what drives voter attention and congressional credit claiming, this book will interest political psychologists and congressional scholars for generations to come."--Mathew D. McCubbins, Duke University "This book, which could not have been written just a few years ago, is a must-read for students of American politics and all who want to know where social science is headed. The authors use the latest text as data methods and modern online platforms to conduct experiments, including on the world's largest social network. While their techniques are cutting edge, the substantive questions they illuminate are as old as our republic."--Jasjeet S. Sekhon, University of California, Berkeley ""The Impression of Influence" throws new light on the credit claiming behavior of members of the U.S. House. The topical book makes a strong case for the idea that politicians need to generate the impression that they are cooking up benefits for those back home. This is the most convincing and interesting work about the credit claiming front that has appeared in a long time."--David Mayhew, Yale University "Politicians are often claiming credit for spending, even when their role in securing spending is limited or absent. This book shows that voters largely fail to discount those claims, are mostly insensitive to spending, and primarily respond to politicians' mere announcements for spending. "The Impression of Influence" makes a major contribution to research on voters' limitations in holding politicians accountable."--Gabriel Lenz, University of California, Berkeley

Face Value

Author: Alexander Todorov
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885728
Size: 15.47 MB
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The scientific story of first impressions—and why the snap character judgments we make from faces are irresistible but usually incorrect We make up our minds about others after seeing their faces for a fraction of a second—and these snap judgments predict all kinds of important decisions. For example, politicians who simply look more competent are more likely to win elections. Yet the character judgments we make from faces are as inaccurate as they are irresistible; in most situations, we would guess more accurately if we ignored faces. So why do we put so much stock in these widely shared impressions? What is their purpose if they are completely unreliable? In this book, Alexander Todorov, one of the world's leading researchers on the subject, answers these questions as he tells the story of the modern science of first impressions. Drawing on psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, computer science, and other fields, this accessible and richly illustrated book describes cutting-edge research and puts it in the context of the history of efforts to read personality from faces. Todorov describes how we have evolved the ability to read basic social signals and momentary emotional states from faces, using a network of brain regions dedicated to the processing of faces. Yet contrary to the nineteenth-century pseudoscience of physiognomy and even some of today's psychologists, faces don't provide us a map to the personalities of others. Rather, the impressions we draw from faces reveal a map of our own biases and stereotypes. A fascinating scientific account of first impressions, Face Value explains why we pay so much attention to faces, why they lead us astray, and what our judgments actually tell us.

Representational Style In Congress

Author: Justin Grimmer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110747051X
Size: 14.77 MB
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This book demonstrates the consequences of legislators' strategic communication for representation in American politics. Representational Style in Congress shows how legislators present their work to cultivate constituent support. Using a massive new data set of texts from legislators and new statistical techniques to analyze the texts, this book provides comprehensive measures of what legislators say to constituents and explains why legislators adopt these styles. Using the new measures, Justin Grimmer shows how legislators affect how constituents evaluate their representatives and the consequences of strategic statements for political discourse. The introduction of new statistical techniques for political texts allows a more comprehensive and systematic analysis of what legislators say and why it matters than was previously possible. Using these new techniques, the book makes the compelling case that to understand political representation, we must understand what legislators say to constituents.

First Impressions

Author: Nalini Ambady
Publisher: Guilford Press
ISBN: 1593857160
Size: 35.63 MB
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This volume brings together leading investigators to explore the science of first impressions: how they are formed, their underlying processes, and effects on emotions, cognitions, and behavior. Integrating cutting-edge theories, methods, and findings from diverse research traditions, the book accessibly conveys the "big picture" of this dynamic area of study. Showcasing the best current work on a fundamental aspect of person perception and social cognition, this book will be read with interest by researchers and students in social and personality psychology, as well as scholars in applied domains. It will fill a unique niche as a text in graduate-level courses.

Impact And Influence

Author: Richard Hale
Publisher: Kogan Page Publishers
ISBN: 9780749430849
Size: 13.64 MB
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In these times of rapid change and uncertainty, when organizational structures are shifting and changing constantly, there are fewer and fewer opportunities to influence others by the use of traditional power and authority. Instead, individuals increasingly have to rely on their personal impact and their influencing skills. These skills are beginning to be identified as critical for success in the future. Richard Hale and Peter Whitlam claim that in order to influence successfully there is a recognized systematic process that not only has clearly defined stages, but also incorporates specific key behaviours. Conventional wisdom decrees that influencing is an innate quality; however, this book, based on validated research, challenges that viewpoint and provides you with some powerful tools and techniques to improve: the impression you make on others; your initial impact; and your ongoing influencing skills. Impact and Influence uniquely provides a framework to help you explore how you can enhance your understanding and abilities in these areas. It also provides practical and psychological tools that can help you put the ideas into practice.

How To Win Friends And Influence People In The Digital Age

Author: Dale Carnegie & Associates
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451612591
Size: 19.16 MB
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A 75th anniversary adaptation of the original landmark best-seller explains how to apply Carnegie's advice to a world driven by electronic communication devices, sharing advice on topics ranging from e-mail etiquette to cyber bullying. Reprint.

Models Of Influence

Author: Nigel Barker
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062345850
Size: 15.60 MB
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New York Times Bestseller Nigel Barker—fashion authority, photographer, and host of Oxygen's The Face—presents 50 of the most influential models from the 1940s to today through a wealth of full-color photographs from the world's most renowned fashion photographers and an anecdotal text that reveals each woman's indelible place in the pantheons of fashion and popular culture. Interweaving 200 gorgeous photographs and informative and entertaining anecdotes, Models of Influence profiles 50 women who have made an unforgettable impression on fashion, the modeling industry, and our notions of beauty. Eight chronological chapters, each of which spotlight an era, feature the stories and images of women who made their mark. These include Lisa Fonssagrives-Penn, Dovima, and Dorian Leigh, who reigned during modeling's golden age in the 1950s; Twiggy, Veruschka, and Jean Shrimpton, who embodied the free spirit of the 1960s; and Lauren Hutton, Iman, and Janice Dickinson, models who revolutionized the notion of beauty in the 1970s. Barker profiles those who've become the million-dollar faces of their time, such as Christie Brinkley and Elle Macpherson; revisits the age of the supermodel, when Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, and Naomi Campbell rose to global stardom; and spotlights eternal chameleons Kate Moss, Stella Tennant, and Amber Valletta, among others. Also included are models who brought us into the twenty-first century, and those who are leading the way into the future, from Gisele Bündchen, Daria Werbowy, Liya Kebede, and Coco Rocha to Cara Delevingne, Karlie Kloss, Lara Stone, Joan Smalls, and Kate Upton. Nigel Barker showcases each model's incandescent style—that special something that sets her apart, whether it's her unique physicality, a daring approach to image-making, or a particular energy that reflects the zeitgeist. Here, too, are models who broke the mold in their respective eras and turned the standard notion of beauty on its head. Stunning in its breadth and beauty, comprising some of the finest fashion images over the last 70 years, Models of Influence is a celebration of fashion and a group of unforgettable women who have helped shape and change modern culture.

Customer Sense

Author: Aradhna Krishna
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137346051
Size: 49.28 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An insightful look at how touch, taste, smell, sound, and appearance effect how customers relate to products on a sensory level, and how small sensory changes can make a huge impact. Customer Sense describes how managers can use this knowledge to improve packaging, branding, and advertising to captivate the consumer's senses.