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The Mathematical Theory Of Information

Author: Jan Kåhre
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461509750
Size: 75.62 MB
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The general concept of information is here, for the first time, defined mathematically by adding one single axiom to the probability theory. This Mathematical Theory of Information is explored in fourteen chapters: 1. Information can be measured in different units, in anything from bits to dollars. We will here argue that any measure is acceptable if it does not violate the Law of Diminishing Information. This law is supported by two independent arguments: one derived from the Bar-Hillel ideal receiver, the other is based on Shannon's noisy channel. The entropy in the 'classical information theory' is one of the measures conforming to the Law of Diminishing Information, but it has, however, properties such as being symmetric, which makes it unsuitable for some applications. The measure reliability is found to be a universal information measure. 2. For discrete and finite signals, the Law of Diminishing Information is defined mathematically, using probability theory and matrix algebra. 3. The Law of Diminishing Information is used as an axiom to derive essential properties of information. Byron's law: there is more information in a lie than in gibberish. Preservation: no information is lost in a reversible channel. Etc. The Mathematical Theory of Information supports colligation, i. e. the property to bind facts together making 'two plus two greater than four'. Colligation is a must when the information carries knowledge, or is a base for decisions. In such cases, reliability is always a useful information measure. Entropy does not allow colligation.

Mathematical Principles Of Fuzzy Logic

Author: Vilém Novák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461552176
Size: 20.92 MB
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Mathematical Principles of Fuzzy Logic provides a systematic study of the formal theory of fuzzy logic. The book is based on logical formalism demonstrating that fuzzy logic is a well-developed logical theory. It includes the theory of functional systems in fuzzy logic, providing an explanation of what can be represented, and how, by formulas of fuzzy logic calculi. It also presents a more general interpretation of fuzzy logic within the environment of other proper categories of fuzzy sets stemming either from the topos theory, or even generalizing the latter. This book presents fuzzy logic as the mathematical theory of vagueness as well as the theory of commonsense human reasoning, based on the use of natural language, the distinguishing feature of which is the vagueness of its semantics.

Effective Polynomial Computation

Author: Richard Zippel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461531888
Size: 80.21 MB
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Effective Polynomial Computation is an introduction to the algorithms of computer algebra. It discusses the basic algorithms for manipulating polynomials including factoring polynomials. These algorithms are discussed from both a theoretical and practical perspective. Those cases where theoretically optimal algorithms are inappropriate are discussed and the practical alternatives are explained. Effective Polynomial Computation provides much of the mathematical motivation of the algorithms discussed to help the reader appreciate the mathematical mechanisms underlying the algorithms, and so that the algorithms will not appear to be constructed out of whole cloth. Preparatory to the discussion of algorithms for polynomials, the first third of this book discusses related issues in elementary number theory. These results are either used in later algorithms (e.g. the discussion of lattices and Diophantine approximation), or analogs of the number theoretic algorithms are used for polynomial problems (e.g. Euclidean algorithm and p-adic numbers). Among the unique features of Effective Polynomial Computation is the detailed material on greatest common divisor and factoring algorithms for sparse multivariate polynomials. In addition, both deterministic and probabilistic algorithms for irreducibility testing of polynomials are discussed.

Finite Fields For Computer Scientists And Engineers

Author: Robert J. McEliece
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461319838
Size: 76.44 MB
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This book developed from a course on finite fields I gave at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the Spring semester of 1979. The course was taught at the request of an exceptional group of graduate students (includ ing Anselm Blumer, Fred Garber, Evaggelos Geraniotis, Jim Lehnert, Wayne Stark, and Mark Wallace) who had just taken a course on coding theory from me. The theory of finite fields is the mathematical foundation of algebraic coding theory, but in coding theory courses there is never much time to give more than a "Volkswagen" treatment of them. But my 1979 students wanted a "Cadillac" treatment, and this book differs very little from the course I gave in response. Since 1979 I have used a subset of my course notes (correspond ing roughly to Chapters 1-6) as the text for my "Volkswagen" treatment of finite fields whenever I teach coding theory. There is, ironically, no coding theory anywhere in the book! If this book had a longer title it would be "Finite fields, mostly of char acteristic 2, for engineering and computer science applications. " It certainly does not pretend to cover the general theory of finite fields in the profound depth that the recent book of Lidl and Neidereitter (see the Bibliography) does.

Wavelet Theory And Its Applications

Author: Randy K. Young
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461535840
Size: 41.97 MB
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The continuous wavelet transform has deep mathematical roots in the work of Alberto P. Calderon. His seminal paper on complex method of interpolation and intermediate spaces provided the main tool for describing function spaces and their approximation properties. The Calderon identities allow one to give integral representations of many natural operators by using simple pieces of such operators, which are more suited for analysis. These pieces, which are essentially spectral projections, can be chosen in clever ways and have proved to be of tremendous utility in various problems of numerical analysis, multidimensional signal processing, video data compression, and reconstruction of high resolution images and high quality speech. A proliferation of research papers and a couple of books, written in English (there is an earlier book written in French), have emerged on the subject. These books, so far, are written by specialists for specialists, with a heavy mathematical flavor, which is characteristic of the Calderon-Zygmund theory and related research of Duffin-Schaeffer, Daubechies, Grossman, Meyer, Morlet, Chui, and others. Randy Young's monograph is geared more towards practitioners and even non-specialists, who want and, probably, should be cognizant of the exciting proven as well as potential benefits which have either already emerged or are likely to emerge from wavelet theory.

Scale Space Theory In Computer Vision

Author: Tony Lindeberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475764650
Size: 12.30 MB
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The problem of scale pervades both the natural sciences and the vi sual arts. The earliest scientific discussions concentrate on visual per ception (much like today!) and occur in Euclid's (c. 300 B. C. ) Optics and Lucretius' (c. 100-55 B. C. ) On the Nature of the Universe. A very clear account in the spirit of modern "scale-space theory" is presented by Boscovitz (in 1758), with wide ranging applications to mathemat ics, physics and geography. Early applications occur in the cartographic problem of "generalization", the central idea being that a map in order to be useful has to be a "generalized" (coarse grained) representation of the actual terrain (Miller and Voskuil 1964). Broadening the scope asks for progressive summarizing. Very much the same problem occurs in the (realistic) artistic rendering of scenes. Artistic generalization has been analyzed in surprising detail by John Ruskin (in his Modern Painters), who even describes some of the more intricate generic "scale-space sin gularities" in detail: Where the ancients considered only the merging of blobs under blurring, Ruskin discusses the case where a blob splits off another one when the resolution is decreased, a case that has given rise to confusion even in the modern literature.

Fundamentals Of Cryptology

Author: Henk C.A. van Tilborg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306470535
Size: 45.29 MB
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The protection of sensitive information against unauthorized access or fraudulent changes has been of prime concern throughout the centuries. Modern communication techniques, using computers connected through networks, make all data even more vulnerable for these threats. Also, new issues have come up that were not relevant before, e. g. how to add a (digital) signature to an electronic document in such a way that the signer can not deny later on that the document was signed by him/her. Cryptology addresses the above issues. It is at the foundation of all information security. The techniques employed to this end have become increasingly mathematical of nature. This book serves as an introduction to modern cryptographic methods. After a brief survey of classical cryptosystems, it concentrates on three main areas. First of all, stream ciphers and block ciphers are discussed. These systems have extremely fast implementations, but sender and receiver have to share a secret key. Public key cryptosystems (the second main area) make it possible to protect data without a prearranged key. Their security is based on intractable mathematical problems, like the factorization of large numbers. The remaining chapters cover a variety of topics, such as zero-knowledge proofs, secret sharing schemes and authentication codes. Two appendices explain all mathematical prerequisites in great detail. One is on elementary number theory (Euclid's Algorithm, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, quadratic residues, inversion formulas, and continued fractions). The other appendix gives a thorough introduction to finite fields and their algebraic structure.

Quantum Theory Of Real Materials

Author: James R. Chelikowsky
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792396666
Size: 16.76 MB
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A Festschrift in honor of Professor Marvin L. Cohen This volume is a Festschrift in honor of Professor Marvin L. Cohen. The articles, contributed by leading researchers in condensed matter physics, high-light recent advances in the use of quantum theory to explain and predict properties of real materials. The invention of quantum mechanics in the 1920's provided detailed descriptions of the electronic structure of atoms. However, a similar understanding of solids has been achieved only in the past 30 years, owing to the complex electron-ion and electron electron interactions in these systems. Professor Cohen is a central figure in this achievement. His development of the pseudopotential and total energy methods provided an alternate route using computers for the exploration of solids and new materials even when they have not yet been synthesized. Professor Cohen's contributions to materials theory have been both fundamental and encompassing. The corpus of his work consists of over 500 papers and a textbook. His band structures for semiconductors are used worldwide by researchers in solid state physics and chemistry and by device engineers. Professor Cohen's own use of his theories has resulted in the determination of the electronic structure, optical properties, structural and vibrational properties, and superconducting properties of numerous condensed matter systems including semiconductors, metals, surfaces, interfaces, defects in solids, clusters, and novel materials such as the fullerides and nanotubes.

Discrete Stochastic Processes

Author: Robert G. Gallager
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146152329X
Size: 28.72 MB
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Stochastic processes are found in probabilistic systems that evolve with time. Discrete stochastic processes change by only integer time steps (for some time scale), or are characterized by discrete occurrences at arbitrary times. Discrete Stochastic Processes helps the reader develop the understanding and intuition necessary to apply stochastic process theory in engineering, science and operations research. The book approaches the subject via many simple examples which build insight into the structure of stochastic processes and the general effect of these phenomena in real systems. The book presents mathematical ideas without recourse to measure theory, using only minimal mathematical analysis. In the proofs and explanations, clarity is favored over formal rigor, and simplicity over generality. Numerous examples are given to show how results fail to hold when all the conditions are not satisfied. Audience: An excellent textbook for a graduate level course in engineering and operations research. Also an invaluable reference for all those requiring a deeper understanding of the subject.

Wavelet Image And Video Compression

Author: Pankaj N. Topiwala
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306470438
Size: 62.15 MB
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An exciting new development has taken place in the digital era that has captured the imagination and talent of researchers around the globe - wavelet image compression. This technology has deep roots in theories of vision, and promises performance improvements over all other compression methods, such as those based on Fourier transforms, vectors quantizers, fractals, neural nets, and many others. It is this revolutionary new technology that is presented in Wavelet Image and Video Compression, in a form that is accessible to the largest audience possible. Wavelet Image and Video Compression is divided into four parts. Part I, Background Material, introduces the basic mathematical structures that underly image compression algorithms with the intention of providing an easy introduction to the mathematical concepts that are prerequisites for the remainder of the book. It explains such topics as change of bases, scalar and vector quantization, bit allocation and rate-distortion theory, entropy coding, the discrete-cosine transform, wavelet filters and other related topics. Part II, Still Image Coding, presents a spectrum of wavelet still image coding techniques. Part III, Special Topics in Still Image Coding, provides a variety of example coding schemes with a special flavor in either approach or application domain. Part IV, Video Coding, examines wavelet and pyramidal coding techniques for video data. Wavelet Image and Video Compression serves as an excellent reference and may be used as a text for advanced courses covering the subject.