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The Mechanobiology And Mechanophysiology Of Military Related Injuries

Author: Amit Gefen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319330128
Size: 39.18 MB
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This book provides a state-of-the-art update, as well as perspectives on future directions of research and clinical applications in the implementation of biomechanical and biophysical experimental, theoretical and computational models which are relevant to military medicine. Such experimental and modeling efforts are helpful, on the one hand, in understanding the aetiology, pathophysiology and dynamics of injury development and on the other hand in guiding the development of better equipment and protective gear or devices that should ultimately reduce the prevalence and incidence of injuries or lessen their hazardous effects. The book is useful for military-oriented biomedical engineers and medical physicists, as well as for military physiologists and other medical specialists who are interested in the science and technology implemented in modern investigations of military related injuries.

Theory And Applications Of Heat Transfer In Humans

Author: Devashish Shrivastava
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119127319
Size: 69.11 MB
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An authoritative guide to theory and applications of heat transfer in humans Theory and Applications of Heat Transfer in Humans 2V Set offers a reference to the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. The author—a noted expert in the field—presents, in this book, the fundamental physics and physiology related to the field, along with some of the recent applications, all in one place, in such a way as to enable and enrich both beginner and advanced readers. The book provides a basic framework that can be used to obtain ‘decent’ estimates of tissue temperatures for various applications involving tissue heating and/or cooling, and also presents ways to further develop more complex methods, if needed, to obtain more accurate results. The book is arranged in three sections: The first section, named ‘Physics’, presents fundamental mathematical frameworks that can be used as is or combined together forming more complex tools to determine tissue temperatures; the second section, named ‘Physiology’, presents ideas and data that provide the basis for the physiological assumptions needed to develop successful mathematical tools; and finally, the third section, named ‘Applications’, presents examples of how the marriage of the first two sections are used to solve problems of today and tomorrow. This important text is the vital resource that: Offers a reference book in the field of heating and cooling of tissue, and associated damage. Provides a comprehensive theoretical and experimental basis with biomedical applications Shows how to develop and implement both, simple and complex mathematical models to predict tissue temperatures Includes simple examples and results so readers can use those results directly or adapt them for their applications Designed for students, engineers, and other professionals, a comprehensive text to the field of heating and cooling of tissue that includes proven theories with applications. The author reveals how to develop simple and complex mathematical models, to predict tissue heating and/or cooling, and associated damage.

Engineering In Translational Medicine

Author: Weibo Cai
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447143728
Size: 61.85 MB
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This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area. The ability for engineering approaches to change biomedical research are increasing and having significant impact. Development of basic assays and their numerous applications are allowing for many new discoveries and should eventually impact human health. This book brings together many diverse yet related topics to give the reader a solid overview of many important areas that are not found together elsewhere. Dr. Weibo Cai has taken great care to select key research leaders of many sub-disciplines who have put together very detailed chapters that are easy to read yet highly rich in content. _______________ This book brings together many diverse yet related topics to give the reader a solid overview of many important areas that are not found together elsewhere. Dr. Weibo Cai has taken great care to select key research leaders of many sub-disciplines who have put together very detailed chapters that are easy to read yet highly rich in content. It is very exciting to see such a great set of chapters all together to allow one to have a key understanding of many different areas including cell, gene, protein, and nano engineering as well as the emerging field of theranostics. I am sure the readers will find this collection of important chapters helpful in their own research and understanding of how engineering has and will continue to play a critical role in biomedical research and clinical translation. Sanjiv Sam Gambhir M.D., Ph.D. Stanford University, USA Engineering in Translational Medicine is a landmark book bridging the fields of engineering and medicine with a focus on translational technologies and methods. In a single, well-coordinated volume, this book brings together contributions from a strong and international scientific cast, broadly covering the topics. The book captures the tremendous opportunities made possible by recent developments in bioengineering, and highlights the potential impact of these advances across a broad spectrum of pressing health care needs. The book can equally serve as a text for graduate level courses, a reference source, a book to be dipped into for pleasure by those working within the field, or a cover-to-cover read for those wanting a comprehensive, yet readable introduction to the current state of engineering advances and how they are impacting translational medicine. Simon R. Cherry, Ph.D. University of California, Davis, USA

Biomechatronics In Medical Rehabilitation

Author: Shane (S.Q.) Xie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331952884X
Size: 17.35 MB
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This book focuses on the key technologies in developing biomechatronic systems for medical rehabilitation purposes. It includes a detailed analysis of biosignal processing, biomechanics modelling, neural and muscular interfaces, artificial actuators, robot-assisted training, clinical setup/implementation and rehabilitation robot control. Encompassing highly multidisciplinary themes in the engineering and medical fields, it presents researchers’ insights into the emerging technologies and developments that are being utilized in biomechatronics for medical purposes. Presenting a detailed analysis of five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) biosignal processing; (ii) biomechanics modelling; (iii) neural and muscular interfaces; (iv) artificial actuators and devices; and (v) the use of neurological and muscular interfaces in rehabilitation robots control, the book describes the design of biomechatronic systems, the methods and control systems used and the implementation and testing in order to show how they fulfil the needs of that specific area of rehabilitation. Providing a comprehensive overview of the background of biomechatronics and details of new advances in the field, it is especially useful for researchers, academics and graduates new to the field of biomechatronics engineering, and is also of interest to researchers and clinicians in the medical field who are not engineers.

The Mechanobiology Of Obesity And Related Diseases

Author: Amit Gefen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319093363
Size: 63.74 MB
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This volume describes the state-of-knowledge in the study of the relationships between mechanical loading states in tissues and common pathophysiologies related to increase in mass of adipose tissues and/or hyperglycemia which eventually lead to obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, metabolic inflammations, certain types of cancer and other related diseases. There appears to be an interaction between the loading states in tissues and cells and these chronic conditions, as well as with factors such as age, gender and genetics of the individual. Bioengineering has made key contributions to this research field in providing technologies for cell biomechanics experimentation, microscopy and image processing, tissue engineering and multi-scale, multi-physics computational modeling. Topics at the frontier of this field of study include: the continuous monitoring of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation in response to mechanical factors such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical loads transferred through the ECM; mechanically-activated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms; effects of different loading regimes and mechanical environments on differentiation fates of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into myogenic and osteogenic versus adipogenic lineages; the interactions between nutrition and mechanotransduction; cell morphology, focal adhesion patterns and cytoskeletal remodeling changes in adipogenesis; activation of receptors related to diabetes by mechanical forces; brown and white adipose plasticity and its regulation by mechanical factors.

Stem Cell Engineering

Author: Robert M. Nerem
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319050745
Size: 11.63 MB
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This book describes a global assessment of stem cell engineering research, achieved through site visits by a panel of experts to leading institutes, followed by dedicated workshops. The assessment made clear that engineers and the engineering approach with its quantitative, system-based thinking can contribute much to the progress of stem cell research and development. The increased need for complex computational models and new, innovative technologies, such as high-throughput screening techniques, organ-on-a-chip models and in vitro tumor models require an increasing involvement of engineers and physical scientists. Additionally, this book will show that although the US is still in a leadership position in stem cell engineering, Asian countries such as Japan, China and Korea, as well as European countries like the UK, Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands are rapidly expanding their investments in the field. Strategic partnerships between countries could lead to major advances of the field and scalable expansion and differentiation of stem cells. This study was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Biomechanics Of Cells And Tissues

Author: Paola Lecca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400758901
Size: 65.78 MB
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The application of methodological approaches and mathematical formalisms proper to Physics and Engineering to investigate and describe biological processes and design biological structures has led to the development of many disciplines in the context of computational biology and biotechnology. The best known applicative domain is tissue engineering and its branches. Recent domains of interest are in the field of biophysics, e.g.: multiscale mechanics of biological membranes and films and filaments; multiscale mechanics of adhesion; biomolecular motors and force generation. Modern hypotheses, models, and tools are currently emerging and resulting from the convergence of the methods and phylosophycal apporaches of the different research areas and disciplines. All these emerging approaches share the purpose of disentangling the complexity of organisms, tissues, and cells and mimiking the function of living systems. The contributions presented in this book are current research highlights of six challenging and representative applicative domains of phyisical, engineering, and computational approaches in medicine and biology, i.e tissue engineering, modelling of molecular structures, cell mechanics and cell adhesión processes, cancer physics, and physico-chemical processes of metabolic interactions. Each chapter presents a compendium or a review of the original results achieved by authors in the last years. Furthermore, the book also wants to pinpoint the questions that are still open and that could propel the future research.

Technical Functions

Author: Wybo Houkes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048139007
Size: 73.44 MB
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This book is about the functions of technical artefacts, material objects made to serve practical purposes; objects ranging from tablets of Aspirin to Concorde, from wooden clogs to nuclear submarines. More precisely, the book is about usinganddesigningartefacts, aboutwhatitmeanstoascribefunctionstothem, and about the relations between using, designing and ascribing functions. In the following pages, we present a detailed account that shows how strong these relations are. Technical functions cannot be properly analysed without taking into regard the beliefs and actions of human beings, we contend. This account stays deceptively close to common sense. After all, who would deny that artefacts are for whatever purpose they are designed or used? As we shall show, however, such intentionalist accounts face staunch opposition from other accounts, such as those that focus on long-term reproduction of artefacts. These accounts are partly right and mostly wrong — and although we do take a common-sense position in the end, it is only after sophisticated analysis. F- thermore, the results of this analysis reveal that technical functions depend on a larger and more structured set of beliefs and actions than is typically s- posed. Much work in the succeeding pages goes into developing an appropriate action-theoretical account, and forging a connection with function ascriptions.

Wave Propagation In Solid And Porous Half Space Media

Author: Hamid R. Hamidzadeh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 1461492696
Size: 22.52 MB
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This book covers advanced topics in dynamic modeling of soil-foundation interaction, as well as the response of elastic semi-infinite media from an applications viewpoint. Advanced concepts such as solutions for analysis of elastic semi-infinite mediums, fluid motion in porous media, and nonlinearities in dynamic behavior are explained in great detail. Related theories and numerical analysis for vertical vibration, and rocking vibration of a rigid rectangular mass-less plate, and horizontal vibration of a rigid mass-less plate are presented. Throughout the book, a strong emphasis is placed on applications, and a laboratory model for elastic half-space medium is provided.

Shock Wave Compression Of Condensed Matter

Author: Jerry W Forbes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642325351
Size: 22.53 MB
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This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure, shock velocity, mass velocity, compression and internal energy of steady 1-D shock waves is then presented. In the second part of the book, more advanced topics are progressively introduced: thermodynamic surfaces are used to describe equilibrium flow behavior, first-order Maxwell solid models are used to describe time-dependent flow behavior, descriptions of detonation shock waves in ideal and non-ideal explosives are provided, and lastly, a select group of current issues in shock wave physics are discussed in the final chapter.