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The Mind Within The Brain

Author: A. David Redish
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199891885
Size: 51.22 MB
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This book details the science behind decision-making in humans. Understanding how the human decision-making system works has enormous implications for understanding who we are, what we do, and why we make the choices we make. By bringing together the tremendous work that has been done by many scientists researching brains, decision-making, and machines over the last few decades, we can begin to get an understanding of ourselves. In this book, with humor, science, and poetry, David Redishdiscusses what is known about how brains work, what is known about how we make decisions, and what is known about how that decision-making machinery can break down under certain conditions to explain irrationality, addiction, and other strange behavior. The primary thesis of this book is that humans are animals that make decisions through computations engaged in by a decision-making machine. This book brings together the new technological breakthroughs that have appeared in the last few decades, the new theoretical progress that has been made in the neuroscience of decision-making in the last decade, and new revelations concerning how decision-making systems fail in both human and non-human mammals, to create a unified theory of decision-making and its vulnerabilities.

Innate

Author: Kevin J. Mitchell
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691184992
Size: 18.31 MB
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A leading neuroscientist explains why your personal traits are more innate than you think What makes you the way you are—and what makes each of us different from everyone else? In Innate, leading neuroscientist and popular science blogger Kevin Mitchell traces human diversity and individual differences to their deepest level: in the wiring of our brains. Deftly guiding us through important new research, including his own groundbreaking work, he explains how variations in the way our brains develop before birth strongly influence our psychology and behavior throughout our lives, shaping our personality, intelligence, sexuality, and even the way we perceive the world. We all share a genetic program for making a human brain, and the program for making a brain like yours is specifically encoded in your DNA. But, as Mitchell explains, the way that program plays out is affected by random processes of development that manifest uniquely in each person, even identical twins. The key insight of Innate is that the combination of these developmental and genetic variations creates innate differences in how our brains are wired—differences that impact all aspects of our psychology—and this insight promises to transform the way we see the interplay of nature and nurture. Innate also explores the genetic and neural underpinnings of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy, and how our understanding of these conditions is being revolutionized. In addition, the book examines the social and ethical implications of these ideas and of new technologies that may soon offer the means to predict or manipulate human traits. Compelling and original, Innate will change the way you think about why and how we are who we are.

Addiction

Author: Shahram Heshmat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317684737
Size: 76.81 MB
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Addiction: A Behavioral Economic Perspective focuses on the behavioral economics of addiction to explain why someone decides and act against her own well-being. It answers the questions of what accounts for self-defeating behavior patterns and how do we best motivate individuals to act according with their long-term goals. A better understanding of decision processes will lead to an improved knowledge of why people engage in self-destructive behaviors and better policy interventions in areas of addiction and obesity. The approach also promises to be valuable as a framework for understanding decisions for an addict’s professional and business life. This book will be of particular use to clinicians, students, and researchers in the fields of addiction, public health, and behavior therapy.

Risiko

Author: Gerd Gigerenzer
Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag
ISBN: 3641119901
Size: 11.83 MB
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Der neue Bestseller von Gerd Gigerenzer Erinnern wir uns an die weltweite Angst vor der Schweinegrippe, als Experten eine nie dagewesene Pandemie prognostizierten und Impfstoff für Millionen produziert wurde, der später still und heimlich entsorgt werden musste. Für Gerd Gigerenzer ist dies nur ein Beleg unseres irrationalen Umgangs mit Risiken. Und das gilt für Experten ebenso wie für Laien. An Beispielen aus Medizin, Rechtswesen und Finanzwelt erläutert er, wie die Psychologie des Risikos funktioniert, was sie mit unseren entwicklungsgeschichtlich alten Hirnstrukturen zu tun hat und welche Gefahren damit einhergehen. Dabei analysiert er die ungute Rolle von irreführenden Informationen, die von Medien und Fachleuten verbreitet werden. Doch Risiken und Ungewissheiten richtig einzuschätzen kann und sollte jeder lernen. Diese Risikoschulung erprobt Gigerenzer seit vielen Jahren mit verblüffenden Ergebnissen. Sein Fazit: Schon Kinder können lernen, mit Risiken realistisch umzugehen und sich gegen Panikmache wie Verharmlosung zu immunisieren.

Die Weisheit Der Vielen

Author: James Surowiecki
Publisher: Plassen Verlag
ISBN: 3864705142
Size: 79.66 MB
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Publikumsjoker sticht Expertenmeinung. Mit unverstelltem Blick untersucht der amerikanische Autor das Phänomen der Gruppe und ihrer klugen Entscheidungen, wenn die richtigen Voraussetzungen gegeben sind. Eine aufschlussreiche, unterhaltsame Lektüre und zugleich ein kraftvoller Kontrapunkt zur gegenwärtigen Diskussion um Eliten und einzelne Meinungsführer. "Die Weisheit der Vielen" ist faszinierend, es ist eines jener Bücher, die die Welt auf den Kopf stellen.

Blink

Author: Malcolm Gladwell
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593405008
Size: 60.81 MB
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Jeder kennt sie: Momente, in denen wir denken, ohne zu denken.Wir nennen sie Intuition oder Bauchgefühl. Aber sie sind viel mehr: Unser Gehirn arbeitet dann auf Hochtouren, um uns die richtigen Entscheidungen zu liefern. Malcolm Gladwell erklärt die Macht dieses Augenblicks und zeigt, wie wir unsere verborgene Intelligenz trainieren und besser nutzen können.

How We Decide

Author: Jonah Lehrer
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0547347480
Size: 13.45 MB
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The first book to use the unexpected discoveries of neuroscience to help us make the best decisions Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate, or we “blink” and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuroscience, they’re discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason—and the precise mix depends on the situation. When buying a house, for example, it’s best to let our unconscious mull over the many variables. But when we’re picking a stock, intuition often leads us astray. The trick is to determine when to use the different parts of the brain, and to do this, we need to think harder (and smarter) about how we think. Jonah Lehrer arms us with the tools we need, drawing on cutting-edge research as well as the real-world experiences of a wide range of “deciders”—from airplane pilots and hedge fund investors to serial killers and poker players. Lehrer shows how people are taking advantage of the new science to make better television shows, win more football games, and improve military intelligence. His goal is to answer two questions that are of interest to just about anyone, from CEOs to firefighters: How does the human mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?