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The Myth Of Executive Functioning

Author: Leonard F. Koziol
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331904477X
Size: 56.95 MB
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Executive functioning: we measure it, assess it, document its development in youth, track its decline in age and use it as a basis for diagnoses, treatment planning and-of course-theories. Could it be possible that science has spent decades chasing a cognitive phantom? Noting the lack of consensus concerning definition, component skills, and location within the brain, The Myth of Executive Functioning calls basic assumptions, prominent theories, commonly used test methods, and even the phrase executive functioning into question. The book's deceptively simple argument takes an evolutionary/neuroscience look at the cornerstones of cognitive organization, including memory, planning, decision-making and adaptation to novel circumstances. From there, gaps are identified between systems of cognitive control and those behaviors that are evaluated in neuropsychological testing-gaps that contribute to the disconnect between how science views mind and body, brain and behavior. The author's problem-solving metaphor places new emphasis on stimulus processing and on the relationship between movement and thought as he offers thought-provoking perspectives on: The limits of neuropsychological constructs. The components of adaptive thinking. The automatic aspects of problem solving. The left-brain/right-brain dichotomy. Problems with the domain approach to cognition. New paradigms for testing cognitive functioning. A controversial presentation with the potential to change clinical practice and training, The Myth of Executive Functioning will be read, debated and learned from by neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, cognitive neuroscientists and rehabilitation specialists.

Large Scale Brain Systems And Neuropsychological Testing

Author: Leonard F. Koziol
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319282220
Size: 63.10 MB
Format: PDF
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This leading-edge volume offers a new framework for neuropsychological testing rooted in the current evidence base on large-scale brain system interactions. Expert coverage brings traditional discrete areas of cognitive functioning (e.g., attention, memory) in line with highly nuanced relationships between cortical and subcortical processing. The new findings point to more accurate and targeted testing, as authors expand on the judicious addition of nonstandardized methods to core diagnostic tools and the underused capacity of neuropsychological testing to assess social behavior and personality. The book’s emphasis on cognition in context gives practitioners better understanding of assessment and evaluation, leading to improved diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for individuals as well as significant improvements in the field. This innovative reference: Reframes cognitive functioning in light of current data on brain interconnectivity. Critiques current methods of neuropsychological test interpretation. Reviews known, useful interpretive methodologies within a new context. Features instructive case examples emphasizing accurate historical and test data. Revisits the strengths and limitations of the bell curve construct. Examines the interpretive significance of pathognomonic signs. Details strategies for making neuropsychological evaluations more clinically relevant. Large-Scale Brain Systems and Neuropsychological Testing combines current findings, clinical sense, and common sense to ground neuropsychologists, school psychologists, child psychologists, and clinical social workers in the effective assessment of real-world functioning.

Intergenerational Transmission Of Child Maltreatment

Author: Lisa Schelbe
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438247
Size: 47.61 MB
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This accessible resource coordinates what we know about the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), with a specific focus on prevention in context. Cutting through facile cause-and-effect constructs, the authors review and critique the recent literature on the complicated nature of the phenomenon and weigh different approaches to its conceptualization. The book identifies child and parental risk factors linked to ITCM as well as protective factors involved in its reduction, while examining complex relationships between family, parenting, and social contexts that can provide keys to understanding and healing traumatized families. This close attention to crucial yet often overlooked details will aid professionals in creating the next wave of salient research projects and effective interventions, and enhance current efforts to break longstanding patterns of abuse and neglect. Among the topics covered: • Theoretical frameworks conceptualizing intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Empirical studies on intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Risk factors associated with ITCM.• Protective factors associated with breaking the cycle of maltreatment.• Methodological challenges in studying ITCM.• Recommendations for evaluation of intervention and prevention strategies. Geared toward novices and veterans alike, Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment is a solution-focused reference of singular importance to practitioners and research professionals involved in improving children’s well-being.

Subcortical Structures And Cognition

Author: Leonard F. Koziol
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387848686
Size: 19.37 MB
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Clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists are traditionally taught that cognition is mediated by the cortex and that subcortical brain regions mediate the coordination of movement. However, this argument can easily be challenged based upon the anatomic organization of the brain. The relationship between the prefrontal cortex/frontal lobes and basal ganglia is characterized by loops from these anterior brain regions to the striatum, the globus pallidus, and the thalamus, and then back to the frontal cortex. There is also a cerebrocerebellar system defined by projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei, to the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei, to the red nucleus and then back to thalamus and cerebral cortex, including all regions of the frontal lobes. Therefore, both the cortical-striatal and cortical-cerebellar projections are anatomically defined as re-entrant systems that are obviously in a position to influence not only motor behavior, but also cognition and affect. This represents overwhelming evidence based upon neuroanatomy alone that subcortical regions play a role in cognition. The first half of this book defines the functional neuroanatomy of cortical-subcortical circuitries and establishes that since structure is related to function, what the basal ganglia and cerebellum do for movement they also do for cognition and emotion. The second half of the book examines neuropsychological assessment. Patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia have been described as exhibiting a variety of cognitive deficits on neuropsychological tests. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that higher-level cognitive functions such as attention, executive functioning, language, visuospatial processing, and learning and memory are affected by subcortical pathologies. There is also considerable evidence that the basal ganglia and cerebellum play a critical role in the regulation of affect and emotion. These brain regions are an integral part of the brain’s executive system. The ability to apply new methodologies clinically is essential in the evaluation of disorders with subcortical pathology, including various developmental disorders (broadly defined to include learning disorders and certain psychiatric conditions), for the purpose of gaining greater understanding of these conditions and developing appropriate methodologies for treatment. The book is organized around three sources of evidence: neuroanatomical connections; patients with various disease processes; experimental studies, including various imaging techniques. These three sources of data present compelling evidence that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are involved in cognition, affect, and emotion. The question is no longer if these subcortical regions are involved in these processes, but instead, how they are involved. The book is also organized around two basic concepts: (1) the functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum; and (2) how this relates to behavior and neuropsychological testing. Cognitive neuroscience is entering a new era as we recognize the roles of subcortical structures in the modulation of cognition. The fields of neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychiatry, and neurology are all developing in the direction of understanding the roles of subcortical structures in behavior. This book is informative while defining the need and direction for new paradigms and methodologies for neuropsychological assessment.

Neuropsychological Report Writing

Author: Jacobus Donders
Publisher: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462524273
Size: 25.82 MB
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All neuropsychologists need to know how to produce evidence-based reports. This book brings together experts to provide an in-depth guide to high-quality report writing in a range of contexts, including evaluations of older adults, psychiatric patients, those with complex medical conditions, schoolchildren, and others. It reviews the fundamental elements of a clinical neuropsychological report and shows how to tailor findings, conclusions, and recommendations to particular audiences, such as referring physicians, school professionals, and legal decision makers. Of special utility, every chapter features excerpts of sample reports, including examples of strong and poor documentation of the same material.

Pediatric Orthopedics

Author: Amr Abdelgawad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461471265
Size: 66.27 MB
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​Topics in pediatric orthopedics routinely surface in general pediatrics and primary care, whether on board exams or in clinical practice. From birth injuries to musculoskeletal infections, there are many conditions and presenting complaints that must be addressed by the primary care physician or pediatrician. This concise and targeted handbook contains just the need to know conditions, injuries, and diseases necessary for residents and even seasoned clinicians to brush up on pediatric orthopedic topics with ease. Information is contained within themed chapters (like neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal infections) and also by anatomical region (hip, knee foot, spine, etc.). This book gives readers the basic knowledge to be able to identify common orthopedic conditions, indications to either treat these conditions or refer patient to an orthopedist, and covers the entire required curriculum needed to answer musculoskeletal questions on the pediatrics board exam.

Complexity Theories Of Cities Have Come Of Age

Author: Juval Portugali
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642245447
Size: 42.83 MB
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Today, our cities are an embodiment of the complex, historical evolution of knowledge, desires and technology. Our planned and designed activities co-evolve with our aspirations, mediated by the existing technologies and social structures. The city represents the accretion and accumulation of successive layers of collective activity, structuring and being structured by other, increasingly distant cities, reaching now right around the globe. This historical and structural development cannot therefore be understood or captured by any set of fixed quantitative relations. Structural changes imply that the patterns of growth, and their underlying reasons change over time, and therefore that any attempt to control the morphology of cities and their patterns of flow by means of planning and design, must be dynamical, based on the mechanisms that drive the changes occurring at a given moment. This carefully edited post-proceedings volume gathers a snapshot view by leading researchers in field, of current complexity theories of cities. In it, the achievements, criticisms and potentials yet to be realized are reviewed and the implications to planning and urban design are assessed.

Handbook Of Executive Functioning

Author: Sam Goldstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461481066
Size: 66.57 MB
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Planning. Attention. Memory. Self-regulation. These and other core cognitive and behavioral operations of daily life comprise what we know as executive functioning (EF). But despite all we know, the concept has engendered multiple, often conflicting definitions and its components are sometimes loosely defined and poorly understood. The Handbook of Executive Functioning cuts through the confusion, analyzing both the whole and its parts in comprehensive, practical detail for scholar and clinician alike. Background chapters examine influential models of EF, tour the brain geography of the executive system and pose salient developmental questions. A section on practical implications relates early deficits in executive functioning to ADD and other disorders in children and considers autism and later-life dementias from an EF standpoint. Further chapters weigh the merits of widely used instruments for assessing executive functioning and review interventions for its enhancement, with special emphasis on children and adolescents. Featured in the Handbook: The development of hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence. A review of the use of executive function tasks in externalizing and internalizing disorders. Executive functioning as a mediator of age-related cognitive decline in adults. Treatment integrity in interventions that target executive function. Supporting and strengthening working memory in the classroom to enhance executive functioning. The Handbook of Executive Functioning is an essential resource for researchers, scientist-practitioners and graduate students in clinical child, school and educational psychology; child and adolescent psychiatry; neurobiology; developmental psychology; rehabilitation medicine/therapy and social work.

Manual Gearbox Design

Author: Alec Stokes
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780750604178
Size: 49.72 MB
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A must-have book for anyone designing manual gearboxes, based on 40 years of industrial experience.