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The Nature Of Mathematical Thinking

Author: Robert J. Sternberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136487506
Size: 39.98 MB
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Why do some children seem to learn mathematics easily and others slave away at it, learning it only with great effort and apparent pain? Why are some people good at algebra but terrible at geometry? How can people who successfully run a business as adults have been failures at math in school? How come some professional mathematicians suffer terribly when trying to balance a checkbook? And why do school children in the United States perform so dismally in international comparisons? These are the kinds of real questions the editors set out to answer, or at least address, in editing this book on mathematical thinking. Their goal was to seek a diversity of contributors representing multiple viewpoints whose expertise might converge on the answers to these and other pressing and interesting questions regarding this subject. The chapter authors were asked to focus on their own approach to mathematical thinking, but also to address a common core of issues such as the nature of mathematical thinking, how it is similar to and different from other kinds of thinking, what makes some people or some groups better than others in this subject area, and how mathematical thinking can be assessed and taught. Their work is directed to a diverse audience -- psychologists interested in the nature of mathematical thinking and abilities, computer scientists who want to simulate mathematical thinking, educators involved in teaching and testing mathematical thinking, philosophers who need to understand the qualitative aspects of logical thinking, anthropologists and others interested in how and why mathematical thinking seems to differ in quality across cultures, and laypeople and others who have to think mathematically and want to understand how they are going to accomplish that feat.

Mathematical And Analogical Reasoning Of Young Learners

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135638691
Size: 39.46 MB
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Mathematical and Analogical Reasoning of Young Learners provides foundational knowledge of the nature, development, and assessment of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. Reasoning is fundamental to understanding mathematics and is identified as one of the 10 key standards for school mathematics for the new millennium. The book draws on longitudinal and cross-cultural studies, conducted in the United States and Australia, of children's reasoning development as they progressed from preschool through the end of second grade. The multifaceted analysis of young children's development of mathematical and analogical reasoning focuses on individual learners, their learning environments, and the interaction between the two. The multidisciplinary team of authors present multiple perspectives and multiple methodologies, and provide valuable information on organizing and sustaining interdisciplinary and cross-cultural inquiry. Key issues addressed include: *the relationship between mathematical and analogical reasoning; *how changes in children's reasoning relate to the implicit instruction they receive in their classrooms; *analyses of the participating teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices with respect to mathematical and analogical reasoning of young learners; and *ways in which we might promote development of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. This volume is highly relevant for mathematics educators, researchers in mathematics education, educational psychologists, early childhood teachers, and others interested in mathematical development of young children, in particular, the development of their reasoning processes.

Understanding Emotions In Mathematical Thinking And Learning

Author: Ulises Xolocotzin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128024895
Size: 10.52 MB
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Emotions play a critical role in mathematical cognition and learning. Understanding Emotions in Mathematical Thinking and Learning offers a multidisciplinary approach to the role of emotions in numerical cognition, mathematics education, learning sciences, and affective sciences. It addresses ways in which emotions relate to cognitive processes involved in learning and doing mathematics, including processing of numerical and physical magnitudes (e.g. time and space), performance in arithmetic and algebra, problem solving and reasoning attitudes, learning technologies, and mathematics achievement. Additionally, it covers social and affective issues such as identity and attitudes toward mathematics. Covers methodologies in studying emotion in mathematical knowledge Reflects the diverse and innovative nature of the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks proposed by current investigations of emotions and mathematical cognition Includes perspectives from cognitive experimental psychology, neuroscience, and from sociocultural, semiotic, and discursive approaches Explores the role of anxiety in mathematical learning Synthesizes unifies the work of multiple sub-disciplines in one place

Algebra In The Early Grades

Author: James J. Kaput
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351577085
Size: 39.76 MB
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This volume is the first to offer a comprehensive, research-based, multi-faceted look at issues in early algebra. In recent years, the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics has recommended that algebra become a strand flowing throughout the K-12 curriculum, and the 2003 RAND Mathematics Study Panel has recommended that algebra be “the initial topical choice for focused and coordinated research and development [in K-12 mathematics].” This book provides a rationale for a stronger and more sustained approach to algebra in school, as well as concrete examples of how algebraic reasoning may be developed in the early grades. It is organized around three themes: The Nature of Early Algebra Students’ Capacity for Algebraic Thinking Issues of Implementation: Taking Early Algebra to the Classrooms. The contributors to this landmark volume have been at the forefront of an effort to integrate algebra into the existing early grades mathematics curriculum. They include scholars who have been developing the conceptual foundations for such changes as well as researchers and developers who have led empirical investigations in school settings. Algebra in the Early Grades aims to bridge the worlds of research, practice, design, and theory for educators, researchers, students, policy makers, and curriculum developers in mathematics education.

Knowing And Teaching Elementary Mathematics

Author: Liping Ma
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135149496
Size: 10.37 MB
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Studies of teachers in the U.S. often document insufficient subject matter knowledge in mathematics. Yet, these studies give few examples of the knowledge teachers need to support teaching, particularly the kind of teaching demanded by recent reforms in mathematics education. Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics describes the nature and development of the knowledge that elementary teachers need to become accomplished mathematics teachers, and suggests why such knowledge seems more common in China than in the United States, despite the fact that Chinese teachers have less formal education than their U.S. counterparts. The anniversary edition of this bestselling volume includes the original studies that compare U.S and Chinese elementary school teachers’ mathematical understanding and offers a powerful framework for grasping the mathematical content necessary to understand and develop the thinking of school children. Highlighting notable changes in the field and the author’s work, this new edition includes an updated preface, introduction, and key journal articles that frame and contextualize this seminal work.

Beyond Classical Pedagogy

Author: Terry Wood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135658714
Size: 43.36 MB
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The emergence of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards in 1989 sparked a sea change in thinking about the nature and quality of mathematics instruction in U.S. schools. Much is known about transmission forms of mathematics teaching and the influence of this teaching on students' learning, but there is still little knowledge about the alternative forms of instruction that have evolved from the recent widespread efforts to reform mathematics education. Beyond Classical Pedagogy: Teaching Elementary School Mathematics reports on the current state of knowledge about these new instructional practices, which differ in significant ways from the traditional pedagogy that has permeated mathematics education in the past. This book provides a research-based view of the nature of facilitative teaching in its relatively mature form, along with opposing views and critique of this form of pedagogy. The focus is on elementary school mathematics classrooms, where the majority of the reform-based efforts have occurred, and on the micro level of teaching (classroom interaction) as a source for revealing the complexity involved in teaching, teachers' learning, and the impact of both on children's learning. The work in elementary mathematics teaching is situated in the larger context of research on teaching. Research and insights from three disciplinary perspectives are presented: the psychological perspective centers on facilitative teaching as a process of teachers' learning; the mathematical perspective focuses on the nature of the mathematical knowledge teachers need in order to engage in this form of teaching; the sociological perspective attends to the interactive process of meaning construction as teachers and students create intellectual communities in their classrooms. The multidisciplinary perspectives presented provide the editors with the necessary triangulation to provide confirming evidence and rich detail about the nature of facilitative teaching. Audiences for this book include scholars in mathematics education and teacher education, teacher educators, staff developers, and classroom teachers. It is also appropriate as a text for graduate courses in mathematics education, teacher education, elementary mathematics teaching methods, and methods of research in mathematics education.

Number Theory In Mathematics Education

Author: Rina Zazkis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136501436
Size: 57.21 MB
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This book offers multiple interconnected perspectives on the largely untapped potential of elementary number theory for mathematics education: its formal and cognitive nature, its relation to arithmetic and algebra, its accessibility, its utility and intrinsic merits, to name just a few. Its purpose is to promote explication and critical dialogue about these issues within the international mathematics education community. The studies comprise a variety of pedagogical and research orientations by an international group of researchers that, collectively, make a compelling case for the relevance and importance of number theory in mathematics education in both pre K-16 settings and mathematics teacher education. Topics variously engaged include: *understanding particular concepts related to numerical structure and number theory; *elaborating on the historical and psychological relevance of number theory in concept development; *attaining a smooth transition and extension from pattern recognition to formative principles; *appreciating the aesthetics of number structure; *exploring its suitability in terms of making connections leading to aha! insights and reaching toward the learner's affective domain; *reexamining previously constructed knowledge from a novel angle; *investigating connections between technique and theory; *utilizing computers and calculators as pedagogical tools; and *generally illuminating the role number theory concepts could play in developing mathematical knowledge and reasoning in students and teachers. Overall, the chapters of this book highlight number theory-related topics as a stepping-stone from arithmetic toward generalization and algebraic formalism, and as a means for providing intuitively grounded meanings of numbers, variables, functions, and proofs. Number Theory in Mathematics Education: Perspectives and Prospects is of interest to researchers, teacher educators, and students in the field of mathematics education, and is well suited as a text for upper-level mathematics education courses.

Teaching And Learning Proof Across The Grades

Author: Despina A. Stylianou
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135856745
Size: 34.53 MB
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A Co-Publication of Routledge for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) In recent years there has been increased interest in the nature and role of proof in mathematics education; with many mathematics educators advocating that proof should be a central part of the mathematics education of students at all grade levels. This important new collection provides that much-needed forum for mathematics educators to articulate a connected K-16 "story" of proof. Such a story includes understanding how the forms of proof, including the nature of argumentation and justification as well as what counts as proof, evolve chronologically and cognitively and how curricula and instruction can support the development of students’ understanding of proof. Collectively these essays inform educators and researchers at different grade levels about the teaching and learning of proof at each level and, thus, help advance the design of further empirical and theoretical work in this area. By building and extending on existing research and by allowing a variety of voices from the field to be heard, Teaching and Learning Proof Across the Grades not only highlights the main ideas that have recently emerged on proof research, but also defines an agenda for future study.

Advanced Mathematical Thinking

Author: David Tall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306472031
Size: 26.46 MB
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This book is the first major study of advanced mathematical thinking as performed by mathematicians and taught to students in senior high school and university. Topics covered include the psychology of advanced mathematical thinking, the processes involved, mathematical creativity, proof, the role of definitions, symbols, and reflective abstraction. It is highly appropriate for the college professor in mathematics or the general mathematics educator.

Mathematics As A Constructive Activity

Author: Anne Watson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135630011
Size: 65.58 MB
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This book explains and demonstrates the teaching strategy of asking learners to construct their own examples of mathematical objects. The authors show that the creation of examples can involve transforming and reorganizing knowledge and that, although this is usually done by authors and teachers, if the responsibility for making examples is transferred to learners, their knowledge structures can be developed and extended. A multitude of examples to illustrate this is provided, spanning primary, secondary, and college levels. Readers are invited to learn from their own past experience augmented by tasks provided in the book, and are given direct experience of constructing examples through a collection of many tasks at many levels. Classroom stories show the practicalities of introducing such shifts in mathematics education. The authors examine how their approach relates to improving the learning of mathematics and raise future research questions. *Based on the authors' and others' theoretical and practical experience, the book includes a combination of exercises for the reader, practical applications for teaching, and solid scholarly grounding. *The ideas presented are generic in nature and thus applicable across every phase of mathematics teaching and learning. *Although the teaching methods offered are ones that engage learners imaginatively, these are also applied to traditional approaches to mathematics education; all tasks offered in the book are within conventional mathematics curriculum content. Mathematics as a Constructive Activity: Learners Generating Examples is intended for mathematics teacher educators, mathematics teachers, curriculum developers, task and test designers, and classroom researchers, and for use as a text in graduate-level mathematics education courses.