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The Nature Of Mathematical Thinking

Author: Robert J. Sternberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136487506
Size: 19.92 MB
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Why do some children seem to learn mathematics easily and others slave away at it, learning it only with great effort and apparent pain? Why are some people good at algebra but terrible at geometry? How can people who successfully run a business as adults have been failures at math in school? How come some professional mathematicians suffer terribly when trying to balance a checkbook? And why do school children in the United States perform so dismally in international comparisons? These are the kinds of real questions the editors set out to answer, or at least address, in editing this book on mathematical thinking. Their goal was to seek a diversity of contributors representing multiple viewpoints whose expertise might converge on the answers to these and other pressing and interesting questions regarding this subject. The chapter authors were asked to focus on their own approach to mathematical thinking, but also to address a common core of issues such as the nature of mathematical thinking, how it is similar to and different from other kinds of thinking, what makes some people or some groups better than others in this subject area, and how mathematical thinking can be assessed and taught. Their work is directed to a diverse audience -- psychologists interested in the nature of mathematical thinking and abilities, computer scientists who want to simulate mathematical thinking, educators involved in teaching and testing mathematical thinking, philosophers who need to understand the qualitative aspects of logical thinking, anthropologists and others interested in how and why mathematical thinking seems to differ in quality across cultures, and laypeople and others who have to think mathematically and want to understand how they are going to accomplish that feat.

Understanding Emotions In Mathematical Thinking And Learning

Author: Ulises Xolocotzin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128024895
Size: 14.48 MB
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Emotions play a critical role in mathematical cognition and learning. Understanding Emotions in Mathematical Thinking and Learning offers a multidisciplinary approach to the role of emotions in numerical cognition, mathematics education, learning sciences, and affective sciences. It addresses ways in which emotions relate to cognitive processes involved in learning and doing mathematics, including processing of numerical and physical magnitudes (e.g. time and space), performance in arithmetic and algebra, problem solving and reasoning attitudes, learning technologies, and mathematics achievement. Additionally, it covers social and affective issues such as identity and attitudes toward mathematics. Covers methodologies in studying emotion in mathematical knowledge Reflects the diverse and innovative nature of the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks proposed by current investigations of emotions and mathematical cognition Includes perspectives from cognitive experimental psychology, neuroscience, and from sociocultural, semiotic, and discursive approaches Explores the role of anxiety in mathematical learning Synthesizes unifies the work of multiple sub-disciplines in one place

The Development Of Arithmetic Concepts And Skills

Author: Arthur J. Baroody
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135672237
Size: 45.95 MB
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This volume focuses on two related questions that are central to both the psychology of mathematical thinking and learning and to the improvement of mathematics education: What is the nature of arithmetic expertise? How can instruction best promote it? Contributors from a variety of specialities, including cognitive, developmental, educational, and neurological psychology; mathematics education; and special education offer theoretical perspectives and much needed empirical evidence about these issues. As reported in this volume, both theory and research indicate that the nature of arithmetic expertise and how to best promote it are far more complex than conventional wisdom and many scholars, past and present, have suggested. The results of psychological, educational, and clinical studies using a wide range of arithmetic tasks and populations (including "normally" and atypically developing children, non-injured and brain-injured adults, and savants) all point to the same conclusion: The heart of arithmetic fluency, in general, and the flexible and creative use of strategies, in particular, is what is termed "adaptive expertise" (meaningful or conceptually based knowledge). The construction of adaptive expertise in mathematics is, for the first time, examined across various arithmetic topics and age groups. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical cognition and learning (including mathematics educators, developmental and educational psychologists, and neuropsychologists), educators (including teachers, curriculum supervisors, and school administrators), and others interested in improving arithmetic instruction (including officials in national and local education departments, the media, and parents).

Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136491147
Size: 28.92 MB
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How we reason with mathematical ideas continues to be a fascinating and challenging topic of research--particularly with the rapid and diverse developments in the field of cognitive science that have taken place in recent years. Because it draws on multiple disciplines, including psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, and anthropology, cognitive science provides rich scope for addressing issues that are at the core of mathematical learning. Drawing upon the interdisciplinary nature of cognitive science, this book presents a broadened perspective on mathematics and mathematical reasoning. It represents a move away from the traditional notion of reasoning as "abstract" and "disembodied", to the contemporary view that it is "embodied" and "imaginative." From this perspective, mathematical reasoning involves reasoning with structures that emerge from our bodily experiences as we interact with the environment; these structures extend beyond finitary propositional representations. Mathematical reasoning is imaginative in the sense that it utilizes a number of powerful, illuminating devices that structure these concrete experiences and transform them into models for abstract thought. These "thinking tools"--analogy, metaphor, metonymy, and imagery--play an important role in mathematical reasoning, as the chapters in this book demonstrate, yet their potential for enhancing learning in the domain has received little recognition. This book is an attempt to fill this void. Drawing upon backgrounds in mathematics education, educational psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and cognitive science, the chapter authors provide a rich and comprehensive analysis of mathematical reasoning. New and exciting perspectives are presented on the nature of mathematics (e.g., "mind-based mathematics"), on the array of powerful cognitive tools for reasoning (e.g., "analogy and metaphor"), and on the different ways these tools can facilitate mathematical reasoning. Examples are drawn from the reasoning of the preschool child to that of the adult learner.

Advanced Mathematical Thinking

Author: David Tall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306472031
Size: 79.65 MB
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This book is the first major study of advanced mathematical thinking as performed by mathematicians and taught to students in senior high school and university. Topics covered include the psychology of advanced mathematical thinking, the processes involved, mathematical creativity, proof, the role of definitions, symbols, and reflective abstraction. It is highly appropriate for the college professor in mathematics or the general mathematics educator.

Advanced Mathematical Thinking

Author: Annie Selden
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135478457
Size: 47.39 MB
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First Published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Mathematical Problem Solving

Author: ALAN H. SCHOENFELD
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483295486
Size: 32.17 MB
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This book is addressed to people with research interests in the nature of mathematical thinking at any level, to people with an interest in "higher-order thinking skills" in any domain, and to all mathematics teachers. The focal point of the book is a framework for the analysis of complex problem-solving behavior. That framework is presented in Part One, which consists of Chapters 1 through 5. It describes four qualitatively different aspects of complex intellectual activity: cognitive resources, the body of facts and procedures at one's disposal; heuristics, "rules of thumb" for making progress in difficult situations; control, having to do with the efficiency with which individuals utilize the knowledge at their disposal; and belief systems, one's perspectives regarding the nature of a discipline and how one goes about working in it. Part Two of the book, consisting of Chapters 6 through 10, presents a series of empirical studies that flesh out the analytical framework. These studies document the ways that competent problem solvers make the most of the knowledge at their disposal. They include observations of students, indicating some typical roadblocks to success. Data taken from students before and after a series of intensive problem-solving courses document the kinds of learning that can result from carefully designed instruction. Finally, observations made in typical high school classrooms serve to indicate some of the sources of students' (often counterproductive) mathematical behavior.

Humans With Media And The Reorganization Of Mathematical Thinking

Author: Marcelo C. Borba
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387242643
Size: 57.42 MB
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This book offers a new conceptual framework for reflecting on the role of information and communication technology in mathematics education. Discussion focuses on how computers, writing and oral discourse transform education at an epistemological as well as a political level. Building on examples, research and theory, the authors propose that knowledge is not constructed solely by humans, but by collectives of humans and technologies of intelligence.

Mathematical And Analogical Reasoning Of Young Learners

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135638691
Size: 70.55 MB
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Mathematical and Analogical Reasoning of Young Learners provides foundational knowledge of the nature, development, and assessment of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. Reasoning is fundamental to understanding mathematics and is identified as one of the 10 key standards for school mathematics for the new millennium. The book draws on longitudinal and cross-cultural studies, conducted in the United States and Australia, of children's reasoning development as they progressed from preschool through the end of second grade. The multifaceted analysis of young children's development of mathematical and analogical reasoning focuses on individual learners, their learning environments, and the interaction between the two. The multidisciplinary team of authors present multiple perspectives and multiple methodologies, and provide valuable information on organizing and sustaining interdisciplinary and cross-cultural inquiry. Key issues addressed include: *the relationship between mathematical and analogical reasoning; *how changes in children's reasoning relate to the implicit instruction they receive in their classrooms; *analyses of the participating teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices with respect to mathematical and analogical reasoning of young learners; and *ways in which we might promote development of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. This volume is highly relevant for mathematics educators, researchers in mathematics education, educational psychologists, early childhood teachers, and others interested in mathematical development of young children, in particular, the development of their reasoning processes.

Beyond Classical Pedagogy

Author: Terry Wood
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135658714
Size: 22.48 MB
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The emergence of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards in 1989 sparked a sea change in thinking about the nature and quality of mathematics instruction in U.S. schools. Much is known about transmission forms of mathematics teaching and the influence of this teaching on students' learning, but there is still little knowledge about the alternative forms of instruction that have evolved from the recent widespread efforts to reform mathematics education. Beyond Classical Pedagogy: Teaching Elementary School Mathematics reports on the current state of knowledge about these new instructional practices, which differ in significant ways from the traditional pedagogy that has permeated mathematics education in the past. This book provides a research-based view of the nature of facilitative teaching in its relatively mature form, along with opposing views and critique of this form of pedagogy. The focus is on elementary school mathematics classrooms, where the majority of the reform-based efforts have occurred, and on the micro level of teaching (classroom interaction) as a source for revealing the complexity involved in teaching, teachers' learning, and the impact of both on children's learning. The work in elementary mathematics teaching is situated in the larger context of research on teaching. Research and insights from three disciplinary perspectives are presented: the psychological perspective centers on facilitative teaching as a process of teachers' learning; the mathematical perspective focuses on the nature of the mathematical knowledge teachers need in order to engage in this form of teaching; the sociological perspective attends to the interactive process of meaning construction as teachers and students create intellectual communities in their classrooms. The multidisciplinary perspectives presented provide the editors with the necessary triangulation to provide confirming evidence and rich detail about the nature of facilitative teaching. Audiences for this book include scholars in mathematics education and teacher education, teacher educators, staff developers, and classroom teachers. It is also appropriate as a text for graduate courses in mathematics education, teacher education, elementary mathematics teaching methods, and methods of research in mathematics education.