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The Neutral Theory Of Molecular Evolution

Author: Motoo Kimura
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139935674
Size: 26.26 MB
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Motoo Kimura, as founder of the neutral theory, is uniquely placed to write this book. He first proposed the theory in 1968 to explain the unexpectedly high rate of evolutionary change and very large amount of intraspecific variability at the molecular level that had been uncovered by new techniques in molecular biology. The theory - which asserts that the great majority of evolutionary changes at the molecular level are caused not by Darwinian selection but by random drift of selectively neutral mutants - has caused controversy ever since. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of this subject and the author synthesises a wealth of material - ranging from a historical perspective, through recent molecular discoveries, to sophisticated mathematical arguments - all presented in a most lucid manner.

Population Genetics Molecular Evolution And The Neutral Theory

Author: Motoo Kimura
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226435626
Size: 77.24 MB
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One of this century's leading evolutionary biologists, Motoo Kimura revolutionized the field with his random drift theory of molecular evolution—the neutral theory—and his groundbreaking theoretical work in population genetics. This volume collects 57 of Kimura's most important papers and covers forty years of his diverse and original contributions to our understanding of how genetic variation affects evolutionary change. Kimura's neutral theory, first presented in 1968, challenged the notion that natural selection was the sole directive force in evolution. Arguing that mutations and random drift account for variations at the level of DNA and amino acids, Kimura advanced a theory of evolutionary change that was strongly challenged at first and that eventually earned the respect and interest of evolutionary biologists throughout the world. This volume includes the seminal papers on the neutral theory, as well as many others that cover such topics as population structure, variable selection intensity, the genetics of quantitative characters, inbreeding systems, and reversibility of changes by random drift. Background essays by Naoyuki Takahata examine Kimura's work in relation to its effects and recent developments in each area.

The Causes Of Molecular Evolution

Author: John H. Gillespie
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195357745
Size: 53.36 MB
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This work provides a unified theory that addresses the important problem of the origin and maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. With modern molecular techniques, variation is found in all species, sometimes at astonishingly high levels. Yet, despite these observations, the forces that maintain variation within and between species have been difficult subjects of study. Because they act very weakly and operate over vast time scales, scientists must rely on indirect inferences and speculative mathematical models. However, despite these obstacles, many advances have been made. The author's research in molecular genetics, evolution, and bio-mathematics has enabled him to draw on this work, and present a coherent and valuable view of the field. The book is divided into three parts. The first consists of three chapters on protein evolution, DNA evolution, and molecular mechanisms. This section reviews the experimental observations on genetic variation. The second part gives a unified treatment of the mathematical theory of selection in a fluctuating environment. The final two chapters combine the earlier assessments in a treatment of the scientific status of two competing theories for the maintenance of genetic variation. Steeped in the enormous advances population genetics has made over the past 25 years, this book has proven highly popular among human geneticists, biologists, evolutionary theorists, and bio-mathematicians.

Evolutionsbiologie

Author: Volker Storch
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642328369
Size: 47.44 MB
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Die gut eingeführte "Evolutionsbiologie" von Volker Storch, Ulrich Welsch und Michael Wink liegt inzwischen in 3., sehr gründlich überarbeiteter und aktualisierter Neuauflage vor. Die Autoren schildern den bisherigen Ablauf der Evolution der Organismen durch die Jahrmillionen, die molekularen Grundlagen der Evolution und - unter verschiedenen Aspekten - die Evolution des Menschen und seiner nächsten Verwandten. Zahlreiche Exkurse, viele von renommierten Wissenschaftlern verfasst, erläutern besonders aktuelle Themen.

Non Neutral Evolution

Author: Brian Golding
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461523834
Size: 67.93 MB
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All organisms--from the AIDS virus, to bacteria, to fish, to humans--must evolve to survive. Despite the central place of evolution within biology, there are many things that are still poorly understood. For Charles Darwin, the driving force behind all evolution was natural selection. More recently, evolutionary biologists have considered that many mutations are essentially neutral with respect to natural selection. Many questions remain. Are molecular differences between species adaptive? Are differences within species adaptive? Modern biotechnology has enabled us to identify precisely the actual DNA structure from many individuals within a population, and thus to see how these DNA sequences have changed over time and to answer some of these questions. At the same time, this knowledge poses new challenges to our ability to understand the observed patterns. This exciting volume outlines the biological problems, provides new perspectives on theoretical treatments of the consequences of natural selection, examines the consequences of molecular data, and relates molecular events to speciation. Every evolutionary biologist will find it of interest.

Plant Molecular Evolution

Author: J.J. Doyle
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401142211
Size: 18.41 MB
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Plant molecular biology has produced an ever-increasing flood of data about genes and genomes. Evolutionary biology and systematics provides the context for synthesizing this information. This book brings together contributions from evolutionary biologists, systematists, developmental geneticists, biochemists, and others working on diverse aspects of plant biology whose work touches to varying degrees on plant molecular evolution. The book is organized in three parts, the first of which introduces broad topics in evolutionary biology and summarizes advances in plant molecular phylogenetics, with emphasis on model plant systems. The second segment presents a series of case studies of gene family evolution, while the third gives overviews of the evolution of important plant processes such as disease resistance, nodulation, hybridization, transposable elements and genome evolution, and polyploidy.

Fundamentals Of Molecular Evolution

Author: Wen-Hsiung Li
Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated
ISBN: 9780878934522
Size: 60.34 MB
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Gene structure and mutation. Protein-coding genes. RNA-specifying genes. Regulatory genes. Nucleotide substitutions. Deletions and insertions. Spatial distribution of mutations. Dynamics of genes in populations. Changes in allele frequencies. Natural selection. Codominance. Overdominance. Random genetic drift. Effective population size. Gene substitution. Fixation probability. Fixation time. Rate of gene substitution. Genetic polymorphism. The neo-darwinian theory and the neutral mutation hypothesis. Evolutionary change in nucleotide sequences. Jukes and cantor's one-parameter model. Kimura's two-parameter model. Number of substitutions between two noncoding sequences. Protein-coding. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The dot-matrix method. The sequence-distance method. Indirect estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions. Restriction endonuclease fragment patterns and site maps DNA-DNA hybridization. Rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution. Variation among different gene regions. A case of positive selection: lysozyme in cows and langurs. Relative-rate tests. Nearly equal rates in mice and rats. Lower rates in humans than in monkeys. Higher rates in rodents than in primates. Causes of variation in substitution rates among evolutionary lineages. Organelle. Pseudogenes. Nonrandom usage of synonymous codons. Phylogeny. Impact of molecular data on phylogenetic studies. Rooted and unrooted trees. True and inferred trees. Gene trees and species trees. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Transformed distance method. Neighbors relation methods. Maximum parsimony methods. Phenetics versus cladistics. Estimation of branch lengths. Rooting unrooted trees. Estimation of species-divergence times clades. Phylogeny of humans and apes. Endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Molecular paleontology. The dusky seaside sparrow: a lesson in conservation biology. Evolution by gene duplication and exon shuffling. Domain duplication and gene elongation. The ovomucoid gene. Formation of gene families and the acquisition of new functions. RNA-specifying genes. Isozymes. Color-sensitive pigment proteins. The globin superfamily of genes. Exon shuffling. Mosaic proteins. Phase limitations on exon shuffling. Alternative pathways for producing new functions. Overlapping genes. Alternative splicing. Gene sharing. Concerted evolution of multigene families. Mechanisms of concerted evolution. Evolution by transposition. Transposable elements. Transposons. Retroelements. Retrosequences. Retrogenes. Processed pseudogenes. Effects of transposition on the host genome. Hybrid dysgenesis. Horizontal transfer of virogenes from baboons to cats. Drosophila. Genome organization and evolution. Genome size of eukaryotes and the C-value paradox. Mechanisms for increasing genome size. Chromosomal duplication. Maintenance of nongenic DNA. Bacteria. Compositional organization of the vertebrate genome. Origins of isochores.