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The New Invisible College

Author: Caroline S. Wagner
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815703648
Size: 18.74 MB
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The twentieth century was the era of "big science." Driven by strategic rivalries and fierce economic competition, wealthy governments invested heavily in national science establishments. Direct funding for institutions like the National Science Foundation and high-visibility projects, such as the race to the moon, fueled innovation, growth, and national prestige. But the big science model left poorer countries out in the cold. Today the organization of science is undergoing a fundamental transformation. In T he New Invisible College, Caroline Wagner combines quantitative data and extensive interviews to map the emergence of global science networks and trace the dynamics driving their growth. She argues that the shift from big science to global networks creates unprecedented opportunities for developing countries to tap science's potential. Rather than squander resources in vain efforts to mimic the scientific establishments of the twentieth century, developing country governments can leverage networks by creating incentives for top-notch scientists to focus on research that addresses their concerns and by finding ways to tie knowledge to local problem solving. T he New Invisible College offers both a guidebook and a playbook for policymakers confronting these tasks.

Encyclopedia Of Science And Technology Communication

Author: Susanna Hornig Priest
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 145226578X
Size: 59.17 MB
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For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit www.sagepub.com/freetrial In the academic world, the term "science communication" refers both to a set of professions (such as science journalism and public information work) and to an interdisciplinary scholarly research specialization. Much of this research is aimed at improving our understanding of the best ways to communicate complex information, especially to people who are not scientists. Science communication specialists are concerned with giving people useful information about health, environment, and technology – as well as science itself. In order to do this, we also need to improve our understanding of how people think, form opinions, and process information. Additionally, professional practitioners in science communication are engaged in strategic and ethical decisions every day, such as: How should reporters cover the issue of climate change? Should the views of scientists who do not believe that climate change has been caused by human activity be included alongside the views of those who do, in order to give a "balanced" story, or does this mislead the public into thinking that both of these positions are equally accepted within the scientific community? The Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Communication provides information on the entire range of interrelated issues in this interdisciplinary field in one place, along with clear suggestions on where to begin the search for more. Geared towards undergraduate and graduate students in journalism, communication, mass communication, and media studies, as well as towards working journalists, public information officers, and public relations specialists, this encyclopedia introduces this vast, fascinating field while challenging the reader to question assumptions inherent in communication across disciplinary boundaries. Key Themes Associations and Organizations Audiences, Opinions, and Effects Challenges, Issues, and Controversies Changing Awareness, Opinion, And Behavior Critical Influences and Events Global and International Aspects Government Agencies (US) History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science Important Figures Journal Publications Key Cases and Current Trends Law, Policy, Ethics, and Beliefs Major Infrastructural Initiatives Practices, Strategies, and Tools Professional Roles and Careers Public Engagement Approaches Theory and Research Venues and Channels

Virtues Of Openness

Author: Michael A. Peters
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317249542
Size: 18.15 MB
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The movement toward greater openness represents a change of philosophy, ethos, and government and a set of interrelated and complex changes that transform markets altering the modes of production and consumption, ushering in a new era based on the values of openness: an ethic of sharing and peer-to-peer collaboration enabled through new architectures of participation. These changes indicate a broader shift from the underlying industrial mode of production—a “productionist” metaphysics—to a postindustrial mode of consumption as use, reuse, and modification where new logics of social media structure different patterns of cultural consumption and symbolic analysis becomes a habitual and daily creative activity. The economics of openness constructs a new language of “presuming” and “produsage” in order to capture the open participation, collective co-creativity, communal evaluation, and commons-based production of social and public goods. Information is the vital element in the “new” politics and economy that links space, knowledge, and capital in networked practices and freedom is the essential ingredient in this equation if these network practices are to develop or transform themselves into 'knowledge cultures'. The Virtues of Openness investigates the social processes and policies that foster openness as an overriding educational value evidenced in the growth of open source, open access, and open education and their convergences that characterize global knowledge communities. The book argues that openness seems also to suggest political transparency and the norms of open inquiry, indeed, even democracy itself as both the basis of the logic of inquiry and the dissemination of its results. The Virtues of Openness examines the complex history of the concept of the open society before beginning a systematic investigation of openness in relation to the book, the “open text” and the written word. These changes are discussed in relation to the development of new open spaces of scholarship with their impact upon open journal systems, open peer review, open science, and the open global digital economy.

Constitutionalising The Security Union

Author: Sergio Carrera
Publisher: Centre for European Policy Studies
ISBN: 9789461386434
Size: 51.89 MB
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This book offers a multidisciplinary examination of the critical issues and challenges associated with the EU's initiative to build a Security Union, particularly in relation to common policies adopted at the member state level aimed at countering terrorism and crime. It delves into EU efforts to support cross-border investigations, the exchange of information and international cooperation, taking stock of the effects on freedom and privacy. The various authors in this collective volume offer key research findings, which contributed to the European Commission's 2017 Comprehensive Assessment of EU Security Policy. They identify and explore the main constitutional dilemmas facing the Security Union concerning EU standards enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and the commitments undertaken in the context of the EU Better Regulation agenda. Hence, this timely examination of EU security policies sheds light on their effectiveness, proportionality, fundamental rights and societal implications.

America S National Security Architecture

Author: Nicholas Burns
Publisher: BookBaby
ISBN: 1483596451
Size: 14.14 MB
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In August 2016, the Aspen Strategy Group examined how to reform America’s national security decision-making process. The papers in this volume provide practical solutions to repair the key functions of Washington’s executive departments, agencies, and advisory bodies responsible for shaping U.S. foreign policy and national security.

Technological Communities And Networks

Author: Dimitris Assimakopoulos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113431244X
Size: 17.93 MB
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The first book to analyze how new technologies are emerging against a background of continuing globalization of research and development activities. This unique book explores how technological communities and networks shape a broad range of new computer based technologies in regional, national and international contexts. Offering a critique of existing organizational and business models, Assimakopoulos analyzes the structure of a broad range of existing technological communities and networks looking at a range of areas including: Internet security electronic copyright intellectual property rights protection geographic information systems. This text is a key resource for research and development managers, ICT engineers and policy makers, as well as post graduate researchers in knowledge management, technology policy, sociology and economics of innovation or history of science and technology.

Blindside

Author: Francis Fukuyama
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815729898
Size: 27.99 MB
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A host of catastrophes, natural and otherwise, as well as some pleasant surprises—like the sudden end of the cold war without a shot being fired—have caught governments and societies unprepared many times in recent decades. September 11 is only the most obvious recent example among many unforeseen events that have changed, even redefined our lives. We have every reason to expect more such events in future. Several kinds of unanticipated scenarios—particularly those of low probability and high impact—have the potential to escalate into systemic crises. Even positive surprises can be major policy challenges. Anticipating and managing low-probability events is a critically important challenge to contemporary policymakers, who increasingly recognize that they lack the analytical tools to do so. Developing such tools is the focus of this insightful and perceptive volume, edited by renowned author Francis Fukuyama and sponsored by The American Interest magazine. Bl indside is organized into four main sections. "Thinking about Strategic Surprise" addresses the psychological and institutional obstacles that prevent leaders from planning for low-probability tragedies and allocating the necessary resources to deal with them. The following two sections pinpoint the failures—institutional as well as personal—that allowed key historical events to take leaders by surprise, and examine the philosophies and methodologies of forecasting. In "Pollyana vs. Cassandra," for example, James Kurth and Gregg Easterbrook debate the future state of the world going forward. Mitchell Waldrop explores why technology forecasting is so poor and why that is likely to remain the case. In the book's final section, "What Could Be," internationally renowned authorities discuss low probability, high-impact contingencies in their area of expertise. For example, Scott Barrett looks at emerging infectious diseases, while Gal Luft and Anne Korin discuss energy security. How can we avoid being blindsided by unforeseen events? There is no easy or obvious answer. But it is essential that we understand the obstacles that prevent us first from seeing the future clearly and then from acting appropriately on our insights. This readable and fascinating book is an important step in that direction.