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The Olfactory System

Author: Kensaku Mori
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431543767
Size: 33.12 MB
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This book summarizes recent advances in understanding of the mammalian and fish olfactory system and provides perspective on the translation of external odor information into appropriate motivational and behavioral responses. Following the discovery of the odorant receptor gene family in 1991, understanding of the basic biological mechanisms of the olfactory system has advanced enormously. Despite such rapid progress, however, it remains unclear how odor information is processed at levels beyond the olfactory bulb, including the olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, and orbitofrontal cortex. This book thus describes the most recent developments in olfactory research, with particular focus on the basic neurobiological mechanisms of the neuronal circuit function in the olfactory system and its related higher centers. Exploring the basic functional logic of the neuronal circuits in the olfactory system in this way appears to be crucial in understanding the workings of the complex neuronal circuits of the brain, particularly those in the cerebral cortex that link sensory perception to appropriate behavioral responses. This book is written for the coming generation of scientists: undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers in the fields of neuroscience, neurobiology, chemical senses, food and nutritional sciences, medical science, sensory psychology, and behavioral sciences.

The Central Nervous System

Author: Per Brodal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190228962
Size: 14.51 MB
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The Fifth edition finds the text of The Central Nervous System thoroughly updated and revised, better equipping students with essential information in the field of clinical neuroscience. This text, reviewed to reflect new information as well as understanding of student needs for critical thinking, contains the systematic, in-depth coverage of topics of great clinical interest. This text seamlessly integrates data from all fields of neuroscience as well as clinical neurology and psychology. This textbook presents the functional properties of clinically-relevant disorders by incorporating data from molecular biology to clinical neurology. Key Features of the Fifth Edition Include... ? Chapters knit together by numerous cross-references and explanations, helping the reader to connect data. ? Carefully selected full color line drawings of the complexities of the nervous system. ? Extensive use of text-boxes provides in-depth material without disturbing the flow of reading. ? Provides a crucial list of references for further reading. While most neurological textbooks are cobbled together by multiple authors on a variety of topics within the field, Dr. Brodal pulls together a cohesive and comprehensive guide to neuroscience. This book reflects Dr. Brodal's concise and easy-to-read style, encouraging reflection and critical thinking in established facts and scientific conjecture. This is the perfect reference for medical, graduate, and undergraduate students alike.

Handbook Of Approach And Avoidance Motivation

Author: Andrew J. Elliot
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135703655
Size: 78.79 MB
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Of the many conceptual distinctions present in psychology today, the approach-avoidance distinction stands out as one of, if not the, most fundamental and basic. The distinction between approach and avoidance motivation has a venerable history, not only within but beyond scientific psychology, and the deep utility of this distinction is clearly evident across theoretical traditions, disciplines, and content areas. This volume is designed to illustrate and highlight the central importance of this distinction, to serve as a one-stop resource for scholars working in this area, and to facilitate integration among researchers and theorists with an explicit or implicit interest in approach and avoidance motivation. The main body of this volume is organized according to seven broad sections that represent core areas of interest in the study of approach and avoidance motivation, including neurophysiology and neurobiology, and evaluative processes. Each section contains a minimum of four chapters that cover a specific aspect of approach and avoidance motivation. The broad applicability of the approach-avoidance distinction makes this Handbook an essential resource for researchers, theorists, and students of social psychology and related disciplines.

Learning To Smell

Author: Donald A. Wilson
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801883682
Size: 37.64 MB
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Drawing on research in neuroscience, physiology, and ethology, Donald A. Wilson and Richard J. Stevenson address the fundamental question of how we navigate through a world of chemical encounters and provide a compelling alternative to the "reception-centric" view of olfaction.

Handbook Of Parenting Biology And Ecology Of Parenting

Author: Marc H. Bornstein
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum
ISBN: 9780805818932
Size: 15.12 MB
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Completely revised and expanded from four to five volumes, this new edition of the Handbook of Parenting appears at a time that is momentous in the history of parenting. Parenting and the family are today in a greater state of flux, question, and redefinition than perhaps ever before. We are witnessing the emergence of striking permutations on the theme of parenting: blended families, lesbian and gay parents, and teen versus fifties first-time moms and dads. One cannot but be awed on the biological front by technology that now not only renders postmenopausal women capable of childbearing, but also presents us with the possibility of designing babies. Similarly on the sociological front, single parenthood is a modern day fact of life, adult child dependency is on the rise, and parents are ever less certain of their own roles, even in the face of rising environmental and institutional demands that they take increasing responsibility for their offspring. The Handbook of Parenting concerns itself with: different types of parents-mothers and fathers, single, adolescent, and adoptive parents; basic characteristics of parenting-behaviors, knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about parenting; forces that shape parenting-evolution, genetics, biology, employment, social class, culture, environment, and history; problems faced by parents-handicap, marital difficulties, drug addiction; and practical concerns of parenting-how to promote children's health, foster social adjustment and cognitive competence, and interact with school, legal, and public officials. Contributors to the Handbook of Parenting have worked in different ways toward understanding all these diverse aspects of parenting, and all look to the most recent research and thinking in the field to shed light on many topics every parent wonders about. Each chapter addresses a different but central topic in parenting; each is rooted in current thinking and theory, as well as classical and modern research in that topic; each has been written to be read and absorbed in a single sitting. In addition, each chapter follows a standard organization, including an introduction to the chapter as a whole, followed by historical considerations of the topic, a discussion of central issues and theory, a review of classical and modern research, forecasts of future directions of theory and research, and a set of conclusions. Of course, contributors' own convictions and research are considered, but contributions to this new edition present all major points of view and central lines of inquiry and interpret them broadly. The Handbook of Parenting is intended to be both comprehensive and state of the art. As the expanded scope of this second edition amply shows, parenting is naturally and closely allied with many other fields.

Olfactory Memory Networks From Emotional Learning To Social Behaviors

Author: Regina M. Sullivan
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889194868
Size: 62.73 MB
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Odors are powerful stimuli that can evoke emotional states, and support learning and memory. Decades of research have indicated that the neural basis for this strong “odor-emotional memory” connection is due to the uniqueness of the anatomy of the olfactory pathways. Indeed, unlike the other sensory systems, the sense of smell does not pass through the thalamus to be routed to the cortex. Rather, odor information is relayed directly to the limbic system, a brain region typically associated with memory and emotional processes. This provides olfaction with a unique and potent power to influence mood, acquisition of new information, and use of information in many different contexts including social interactions. Indeed, olfaction is crucially involved in behaviors essential for survival of the individual and species, including identification of predators, recognition of individuals for procreation or social hierarchy, location of food, as well as attachment between mating pairs and infant-caretaker dyads. Importantly, odors are sampled through sniffing behavior. This active sensing plays an important role in exploratory behaviors observed in the different contexts mentioned above. Odors are also critical for learning and memory about events and places and constitute efficient retrieval cues for the recall of emotional episodic memories. This broad role for odors appears highly preserved across species. In addition, the consistent early developmental emergence of olfactory function across diverse species also provides a unique window of opportunity for analysis of myriad behavioral systems from rodents to nonhuman primates and humans. This, when combined with the relatively conserved organization of the olfactory system in mammals, provides a powerful framework to explore how complex behaviors can be modulated by odors to produce adaptive responses, and to investigate the underlying neural networks. The present research topic brings together cutting edge research on diverse species and developmental stages, highlighting convergence and divergence between humans and animals to facilitate translational research.

Molecular And Biophysical Mechanisms Of Arousal Alertness And Attention

Author: Donald W. Pfaff
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 48.16 MB
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Brain mechanisms for arousal, alertness, and attention underlie all cognitive functions and all emotional expression. This volume discusses the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and functional genomics of these states, and the medical consequences of their damage in human patients -- e.g. vegetative states, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, age-related dementias, mood disorders and sleep disorders. The volume also discusses problems related to vigilance, environmental toxins, fatigue states, circadian rhythms, and sleep/wake physiology, and presents and discusses relevant research techniques, with an emphasis on molecular genetics and on human and animal behavior. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (www.nyas.org). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http://www.nyas.org/MemberCenter/Join.aspx for more information about becoming a member

Molecular Mechanisms Influencing Aggressive Behaviours

Author: Novartis Foundation
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780470010686
Size: 13.37 MB
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This book features scientists from a broad spectrum of disciplines discussing recent data on aggression in laboratory animals with particular reference to possible implications for understanding human aggression. Chapters focus on the major current experimental issues in the study of aggression in humans and animals. The extensive discussions deal with specific problems of interpretation at the molecular level, as well as general issues relating to our understanding of human and animal aggression.