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The Olfactory System

Author: Kensaku Mori
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431543767
Size: 29.40 MB
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This book summarizes recent advances in understanding of the mammalian and fish olfactory system and provides perspective on the translation of external odor information into appropriate motivational and behavioral responses. Following the discovery of the odorant receptor gene family in 1991, understanding of the basic biological mechanisms of the olfactory system has advanced enormously. Despite such rapid progress, however, it remains unclear how odor information is processed at levels beyond the olfactory bulb, including the olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, and orbitofrontal cortex. This book thus describes the most recent developments in olfactory research, with particular focus on the basic neurobiological mechanisms of the neuronal circuit function in the olfactory system and its related higher centers. Exploring the basic functional logic of the neuronal circuits in the olfactory system in this way appears to be crucial in understanding the workings of the complex neuronal circuits of the brain, particularly those in the cerebral cortex that link sensory perception to appropriate behavioral responses. This book is written for the coming generation of scientists: undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers in the fields of neuroscience, neurobiology, chemical senses, food and nutritional sciences, medical science, sensory psychology, and behavioral sciences.

The Central Nervous System

Author: Per Brodal
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190228962
Size: 69.99 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Fifth edition finds the text of The Central Nervous System thoroughly updated and revised, better equipping students with essential information in the field of clinical neuroscience. This text, reviewed to reflect new information as well as understanding of student needs for critical thinking, contains the systematic, in-depth coverage of topics of great clinical interest. This text seamlessly integrates data from all fields of neuroscience as well as clinical neurology and psychology. This textbook presents the functional properties of clinically-relevant disorders by incorporating data from molecular biology to clinical neurology. Key Features of the Fifth Edition Include... ? Chapters knit together by numerous cross-references and explanations, helping the reader to connect data. ? Carefully selected full color line drawings of the complexities of the nervous system. ? Extensive use of text-boxes provides in-depth material without disturbing the flow of reading. ? Provides a crucial list of references for further reading. While most neurological textbooks are cobbled together by multiple authors on a variety of topics within the field, Dr. Brodal pulls together a cohesive and comprehensive guide to neuroscience. This book reflects Dr. Brodal's concise and easy-to-read style, encouraging reflection and critical thinking in established facts and scientific conjecture. This is the perfect reference for medical, graduate, and undergraduate students alike.

Learning To Smell

Author: Donald A. Wilson
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801888948
Size: 14.47 MB
Format: PDF
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Written by a neurobiologist and a psychologist, this volume presents a new theory of olfactory perception. Drawing on research in neuroscience, physiology, and ethology, Donald A. Wilson and Richard J. Stevenson address the fundamental question of how we navigate through a world of chemical encounters and provide a compelling alternative to the "reception-centric" view of olfaction. The major research challenge in olfaction is determining how the brain discriminates one smell from another. Here, the authors hold that olfaction is generally not a simple physiochemical process, but rather a plastic process that is strongly tied to memory. They find the traditional approach—which involves identifying how particular features of a chemical stimulus are represented in the olfactory system—to be at odds with historical data and with a growing body of neurobiological and psychological evidence that places primary emphasis on synthetic processing and experiential factors. Wilson and Stevenson propose that experience and cortical plasticity not only are important for traditional associative olfactory memory but also play a critical, defining role in odor perception and that current views are insufficient to account for current and past data. The book includes a broad comparative overview of the structure and function of olfactory systems, an exploration into the mechanisms of odor detection and olfactory perception, and a discussion of the implications of the authors' theory. Learning to Smell will serve as an important reference for workers within the field of chemical senses and those interested in sensory processing and perception. -- Noam Sobel

Flavor

Author: Patrick Etiévant
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081003005
Size: 55.27 MB
Format: PDF
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Flavor: From Food to Behaviors, Wellbeing and Health is the first single-volume resource focused on the different mechanisms of flavor perception from food ingestion, to sensory image integration and the physiological effects that may explain food behaviors. The information contained is highly multidisciplinary, starting with chemistry and biochemistry, and then continuing with psychology, neurobiology, and sociology. The book gives coherence between results obtained in these fields to better explain how flavor compounds may modulate food intake and behavior. When available, physiological mechanisms and mathematical models are explained. Since almost half a billion people suffer from obesity and food related chronic diseases in the world, and since recent research has investigated the possible roles of pleasure linked to the palatability of food and eating pleasure on food intake, food habits, and energy regulation, this book is a timely resource on the topic. This book links these results in a logical story, starting in the food and the food bolus, and explaining how flavor compounds can reach different receptors, contribute to the emergence of a sensory image, and modulate other systems recognized as controlling food intake and food behavior. The influence of age, physiological disorders, or social environments are included in this approach since these parameters are known to influence the impact of food flavor on human behavior. Uniquely brings together multidisciplinary fields to explain, in a narrative structure, how flavor compounds may modulate food intake and behavior Includes discussions of chemistry and biochemistry, psychology, neurobiology, and sociology Presents an extremely current view that offers a wide perspective on flavor, an area of rapidly expanding knowledge Edited by renowned experts in the field of flavor perception

Olfactory Memory Networks From Emotional Learning To Social Behaviors

Author: Regina M. Sullivan
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889194868
Size: 36.73 MB
Format: PDF
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Odors are powerful stimuli that can evoke emotional states, and support learning and memory. Decades of research have indicated that the neural basis for this strong “odor-emotional memory” connection is due to the uniqueness of the anatomy of the olfactory pathways. Indeed, unlike the other sensory systems, the sense of smell does not pass through the thalamus to be routed to the cortex. Rather, odor information is relayed directly to the limbic system, a brain region typically associated with memory and emotional processes. This provides olfaction with a unique and potent power to influence mood, acquisition of new information, and use of information in many different contexts including social interactions. Indeed, olfaction is crucially involved in behaviors essential for survival of the individual and species, including identification of predators, recognition of individuals for procreation or social hierarchy, location of food, as well as attachment between mating pairs and infant-caretaker dyads. Importantly, odors are sampled through sniffing behavior. This active sensing plays an important role in exploratory behaviors observed in the different contexts mentioned above. Odors are also critical for learning and memory about events and places and constitute efficient retrieval cues for the recall of emotional episodic memories. This broad role for odors appears highly preserved across species. In addition, the consistent early developmental emergence of olfactory function across diverse species also provides a unique window of opportunity for analysis of myriad behavioral systems from rodents to nonhuman primates and humans. This, when combined with the relatively conserved organization of the olfactory system in mammals, provides a powerful framework to explore how complex behaviors can be modulated by odors to produce adaptive responses, and to investigate the underlying neural networks. The present research topic brings together cutting edge research on diverse species and developmental stages, highlighting convergence and divergence between humans and animals to facilitate translational research.

Chemical Communication In Crustaceans

Author: Thomas Breithaupt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387771014
Size: 29.17 MB
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The crustaceans are ecologically and economically important organisms. They constitute one of the dominant invertebrate groups on earth, particularly within the aquatic realm. Crustaceans include some of the preferred scientific model organism, profitable aquaculture specimen, but also invasive nuisance species threatening native animal communities throughout the world. Chemoreception is the most important sensory modality of crustaceans, acquiring important information about their environment and picking up the chemical signals that mediate communication with conspecifics. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of crustacean chemical communication during the past decade. This includes knowledge about the identity, production, transfer, reception and behavioral function of chemical signals in selected crustacean groups. While it is well known that chemical communication is an integral part of the behavioral ecology of most living organisms, the intricate ways in which organisms allocate chemicals in communication remains enigmatic. How does the environment influence the evolution of chemical communication? What are the environmental cues that induce production or release of chemicals? How do individuals economize production and utilization of chemicals? What is the importance of molecule specificity or mix of a molecule cocktail in chemical communication? What is the role of chemical cues in multimodal communication? How does the ontogenetic stage, the sex or the physiological status of an individual affect its reaction to chemical cues? Many of these questions still represent important challenges to biologists.

Hormones Brain And Behavior Online

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 008088783X
Size: 64.51 MB
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Hormones, Brain, and Behavior Second Edition is a comprehensive work discussing the effect of hormones on the brain and, subsequently, behavior. This major reference work has 109 chapters covering a broad range of topics with an extensive discussion of the effects of hormones on insects, fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, and humans. To truly understand all aspects of our behavior, we must take every influence (including the hormonal influences) into consideration. Donald Pfaff and a number of well-qualified editors examine and discuss how we are influenced by hormonal factors, offering insight, and information on the lives of a variety of species. Hormones, Brain, and Behavior offers the reader comprehensive coverage of growing field of research, with a state-of-the-art overview of hormonally-mediated behaviors. This reference provides unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics. The topics cover an unusual breadth (from molecules to ecophysiology), ranging from basic science to clinical research, making this reference of interest to a broad range of scientists in a variety of fields. Available online exclusively via ScienceDirect. A limited edition print version is also available. * Comprehensive coverage of a growing field of research * Unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunites for relating behavior to molecular genetics * Covers an unusual breadth ranging from molecules to ecophysiology, and from basic science to clinical research

Neurobiology Of Chemical Communication

Author: Carla Mucignat-Caretta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466553413
Size: 45.38 MB
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Intraspecific communication involves the activation of chemoreceptors and subsequent activation of different central areas that coordinate the responses of the entire organism—ranging from behavioral modification to modulation of hormones release. Animals emit intraspecific chemical signals, often referred to as pheromones, to advertise their presence to members of the same species and to regulate interactions aimed at establishing and regulating social and reproductive bonds. In the last two decades, scientists have developed a greater understanding of the neural processing of these chemical signals. Neurobiology of Chemical Communication explores the role of the chemical senses in mediating intraspecific communication. Providing an up-to-date outline of the most recent advances in the field, it presents data from laboratory and wild species, ranging from invertebrates to vertebrates, from insects to humans. The book examines the structure, anatomy, electrophysiology, and molecular biology of pheromones. It discusses how chemical signals work on different mammalian and non-mammalian species and includes chapters on insects, Drosophila, honey bees, amphibians, mice, tigers, and cattle. It also explores the controversial topic of human pheromones. An essential reference for students and researchers in the field of pheromones, this is also an ideal resource for those working on behavioral phenotyping of animal models and persons interested in the biology/ecology of wild and domestic species.

The Emotional Brain

Author: Joseph Ledoux
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439126380
Size: 65.55 MB
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What happens in our brains to make us feel fear, love, hate, anger, joy? Do we control our emotions, or do they control us? Do animals have emotions? How can traumatic experiences in early childhood influence adult behavior, even though we have no conscious memory of them? In The Emotional Brain, Joseph LeDoux investigates the origins of human emotions and explains that many exist as part of complex neural systems that evolved to enable us to survive. One of the principal researchers profiled in Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence, LeDoux is a leading authority in the field of neural science. In this provocative book, he explores the brain mechanisms underlying our emotions -- mechanisms that are only now being revealed.

Neurobiology Of Sensation And Reward

Author: Jay A. Gottfried
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 142006729X
Size: 59.35 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Synthesizing coverage of sensation and reward into a comprehensive systems overview, Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward presents a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary approach to the interplay of sensory and reward processing in the brain. While over the past 70 years these areas have drifted apart, this book makes a case for reuniting sensation and reward by highlighting the important links and interface between the two. Emphasizing the role of reward in reinforcing behaviors, the book begins with an exploration of the history, ecology, and evolution of sensation and reward. Progressing through the five senses, contributors explore how the brain extracts information from sensory cues. The chapter authors examine how different animal species predict rewards, thereby integrating sensation and reward in learning, focusing on effects in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. Drawing on empirical research, contributors build on the themes of the book to present insights into the human sensory rewards of perfume, art, and music, setting the scene for further cross-disciplinary collaborations that bridge the neurobiological interface between sensation and reward.