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The People Themselves

Author: Larry D. Kramer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195306453
Size: 52.59 MB
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Examines the distinct difference between how the people and the founding fathers viewed the new Constitution and how it is interpreted over two hundred years later and maintains that originally the people were the ones responsible for seeing that its concepts were properly implemented.

The People Themselves

Author: Larry Kramer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780195169188
Size: 64.11 MB
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The United States Constitution is the foundation of the longest and most successful democratic experiment in modern human history. It serves not only as legal bedrock for the world's most powerful nation-state, but also, more broadly, it reflects that nation's fundamental aspirations and commitments as a society. Who then has the authority to interpret a blueprint of such extraordinary influence? Americans have come to treat the Constitution as something beyond their competence, something whose meaning should be decided by judges, assisted by a cadre of trained lawyers and academics. Yet this submission to a lawyerly elite is a radical and troublesome departure from what was originally the case. For America's founding generation celebrated the central role of "the people" in supplying government with its energy and direction. In this groundbreaking interpretation of America's founding and its concept of constitutionalism, Larry Kramer reveals how the first generations of Americans fought for and gave birth to a very different system from our current one and held a very different understanding of citizenship from that of most Americans today. "Popular sovereignty" was more than an empty abstraction, more than a mythic philosophical justification for government, and the idea of "the people" was more than a flip rhetorical gesture to be used on the campaign trail. Ordinary Americans exercised active control and sovereignty over their Constitution. The constitutionality of governmental action met with vigorous public debate in struggles whose outcomes might be greeted with celebratory feasts and bonfires, or with belligerent resistance. The Constitution remained, fundamentally, an act of popular will: the people's charter, made by the people. And it was "the people themselves" who were responsible for seeing that it was properly interpreted and implemented. With this book, Larry Kramer vaults to the forefront of constitutional theory and interpretation. In the process, he rekindles the original spark of "We, the People," inviting every citizen to join him in reclaiming the Constitution's legacy as, in Franklin D. Roosevelt's words, "a layman's instrument of government" and not "a lawyer's contract."

Gerechtigkeit F R Igel

Author: Ronald Dworkin
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518780204
Size: 31.27 MB
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»Der Fuchs weiß viele Dinge, aber der Igel weiß eine große Sache.« Der griechische Dichter Archilochos hat diesen Satz formuliert, Isaiah Berlin hat ihn mit seinem Tolstoi-Essay berühmt gemacht. Aber was ist diese »eine große Sache«? Ronald Dworkin liefert eine Antwort: Es sind Werte in all ihren Erscheinungsformen. Wenn wir verstehen wollen, was Wahrheit und Schönheit sind, was dem Leben Sinn verleiht, was die Moral fordert und die Gerechtigkeit verlangt, so müssen wir der Spur jener moralischen Einstellungen nachgehen, die menschliches Denken, Fühlen und Handeln durchdringen und zu einer Einheit formen. »Gerechtigkeit für Igel« ist eines jener Bücher, wie es sie in Zeiten der Füchse – der Spezialisten und Skeptiker – immer seltener gibt: eines, das aus einem einzigen Prinzip eine ganze Welt erklären und zugleich Orientierung geben möchte.

Zwischen Widerstand Und Martyrium

Author: Detlef Garbe
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3486594435
Size: 34.74 MB
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Bis heute gehören die Zeugen Jehovas zu den weitgehend vergessenen Opfern des NS-Regimes. Sie wurden bereits Mitte 1933 und von da an mit unerbittlicher Härte bekämpft. Keine andere Religionsgemeinschaft hat mit einer vergleichbaren Geschlossenheit und Unbeugsamkeit dem nationalsozialistischen Druck widerstanden. Der Bekennermut der "Bibelforscher" beschäftigte zeitweilig höchste Stellen in Justiz, Polizei und SS. Sie waren die einzige Gruppe, die ungeachtet drohender Todesstrafe geschlossen den Kriegsdienst verweigerte. Die Auswertung bislang unbekannter Archivalien, Interviews mit Überlebenden und die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit ihrem Schrifttum bilden die Basis für diese erste umfassende sozialgeschichtliche Darstellung über die Verfolgung der Zeugen Jehovas im Nationalsozialismus. The religious community of Jehovas Witnesses is one of the almost forgotten groups of Nazi victims. Jehovas Witnesses constituted no more than a half per mille of the German population, about 25,000-30,000 people, but they were one of the most fiercely persecuted religious groups in the Third Reich. They even were the first group to be outlawed by the Nazi regime, as early as 1933. In spite of this, they continued in their resistance, eoften arning incarceration in the concentration camps. Even there, they refused to work for the armaments. The collective refusal of their men to serve as soldiers in the war led many of them to their deaths by court martial.

Demokratische Gesetzgebung In Der Europ Ischen Union

Author: Jelena von Achenbach
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 364223917X
Size: 64.26 MB
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Das Mitentscheidungsverfahren (Art. 294 AEUV) ist seit dem Vertrag von Lissabon das ordentliche Gesetzgebungsverfahren der Europäischen Union. Mit der Monographie wird die Co-Gesetzgeberschaft von Europäischem Parlament und Rat als Mittel der demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Gesetzgebung untersucht. Im Zentrum steht dabei eine demokratietheoretische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Modell der dualen demokratischen Legitimation europäischer Hoheitsgewalt, das mit Art. 10 EUV nunmehr im Demokratieprinzip der Union verankert ist. Daneben steht eine empirisch gestützte Untersuchung der Praxis des Mitentscheidungsverfahrens, die sich insbesondere der zunehmenden Informalisierung des Gesetzgebungsprozesses („Triloge“) kritisch widmet.

The Rescue Of Joshua Glover

Author: H. Robert Baker
Publisher: Ohio University Press
ISBN: 0821442147
Size: 38.82 MB
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On March 11, 1854, the people of Wisconsin prevented agents of the federal government from carrying away the fugitive slave, Joshua Glover. Assembling in mass outside the Milwaukee courthouse, they demanded that the federal officers respect his civil liberties as they would those of any other citizen of the state. When the officers refused, the crowd took matters into its own hands and rescued Joshua Glover. The federal government brought his rescuers to trial, but the Wisconsin Supreme Court intervened and took the bold step of ruling the Fugitive Slave Act unconstitutional. The Rescue of Joshua Glover delves into the courtroom trials, political battles, and cultural equivocation precipitated by Joshua Glover's brief, but enormously important, appearance in Wisconsin on the eve of the Civil War. H. Robert Baker articulates the many ways in which this case evoked powerful emotions in antebellum America, just as the stage adaptation of Uncle Tom's Cabin was touring the country and stirring antislavery sentiments. Terribly conflicted about race, Americans struggled mightily with a revolutionary heritage that sanctified liberty but also brooked compromise with slavery. Nevertheless, as The Rescue of Joshua Glover demonstrates, they maintained the principle that the people themselves were the last defenders of constitutional liberty, even as Glover's rescue raised troubling questions about citizenship and the place of free blacks in America.

Betrachtungen Ber Die Repr Sentativregierung

Author: John Stuart Mill
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
ISBN: 3518735179
Size: 52.72 MB
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Die anhaltende Diskussion um die »Krise des Parlamentarismus« zeigt, dass die normative Begründung und systematische Bestimmung von Parlamentsfunktionen und demokratischer Öffentlichkeit von entscheidender Bedeutung für die Zukunft der repräsentativen Demokratie ist. Das Problem ist aber nicht neu, wie John Stuart Mills klassischer Text zeigt. Er kreist um die Frage, wie sich die Gefahr einer »Tyrannei der Mehrheit« mit den Partizipationsanforderungen demokratischen Regierens versöhnen lässt. Mill begründet darin u. a. ein deliberatives Verständnis von Politik und erörtert die Gefahren einer bürokratischen Strangulierung politischer Freiheit. Ein Schlüsselwerk der Demokratietheorie und Parlamentarismusforschung.