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The Politics Of Industrial Agriculture

Author: Tracey Clunies-Ross
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134063938
Size: 71.79 MB
Format: PDF
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In the last forty years, agriculture in the industrialised countries has undergone a revolution. That has dramatically increased yields, but it has also led to extensive rural depopulation; widespread degradation of the environment; contamination of food with agrochemicals and bacteria; more routine maltreatment of farm animals; and the undermining of Third World economies and livelihoods through unfair trading systems. Confronted by mounting evidence of environmental harm and social impacts, mainstream agronomistis and policy-makers have debatedly recognized the need for change. 'Sustainable agricultutre' has become the buzz phrase. But that can mean different things to different people. We have to ask: sustainable agriculture for whom? Whose interests are benefiting? And whose are suffering? At issue is the question of power – of who controls the land and what it produces. Most of the changes currently under discussion will actually strengthen the status quo and the underlying causes of the damage. The result will be greater intensification of farming, environmental destruction and inequality. There are no simple off-the-shelf alternatives to industrial agriculture. There are, however, groups throughout the world, who have contributed to this report and who are working together on a new approach. An agriculture that, in Wendell Berry's words, 'depletes neither soil nor people'. Originally published in 1992

The Politics Of Fresh Water

Author: Catherine M. Ashcraft
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317509986
Size: 41.97 MB
Format: PDF
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Water scarcity is not simply the result of what nature has to offer but always involves power relations and political decisions. This volume discusses the politics of the freshwater crisis, specifically how access to water is determined in different regions and historical periods, how conflict is constructed and managed, and how identity and efforts to control water systems, through development, technologies, and institutions, shape one another. The book analyzes responses to the water crisis as efforts to mitigate water insecurity and as expressions of collective identity that legitimate, resist, or seek to transform existing inequalities. The chapters focus on different processes that contribute to freshwater scarcity, including land use decisions, pollution, privatization, damming, climate change, discrimination, water management institutions and technology. Case studies are included from North and South America, Africa, Asia, Europe and New Zealand.

Agroforestry For Natural Resource Management

Author: Ian Nuberg
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 0643098518
Size: 33.54 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In its early days, agroforestry may have been viewed as the domain of the 'landcare enthusiast'. Today, integrating trees and shrubs into productive farming systems is seen as a core principle of sustainable agriculture. Agroforestry for Natural Resource Management provides the foundation for an understanding of agroforestry practice in both high and low rainfall zones across Australia. Three major areas are discussed: environmental functions of trees in the landscape (ecosystem mimicry, hydrology, protection of crops, animals and soil, biodiversity, aesthetics); productive functions of trees (timber, firewood, pulp, fodder, integrated multi-products); and the implementation of agroforestry (design, evaluation, establishment, adoption, policy support). The book also includes a DVD that features videos on forest measurement and harvesting, a Farm Forestry Toolbox and many regionally specific agroforestry resources. Written by leading researchers and practitioners from around Australia, Agroforestry for Natural Resource Management will be an essential resource for students in agroforestry courses, as well as a valuable introduction to the field for professionals in related areas.

The Eu Environmental Liability Directive

Author: Lucas Bergkamp
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191648930
Size: 78.57 MB
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Similar to the United States (US) Natural Resource Damage (NRD) program, defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or "Superfund") and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), the European Union's (EU) Environmental Liability Directive (ELD)imposes liability for, and requires remediation of, significant damage to natural habitats and species protected at Community and national levels, surface and ground waters covered by the Water Framework Directive, and land.The ELD was first published in 2004 and has since been transposed into the national laws of all EU Member States. However there is little guidance available to authorities and industry in interpreting and applying the ELD and meeting its prevention and restoration objectives. This volume is the first to describe the EU's ELD and to examine the emerging issues and practices in its application. While there are differences between the US and EU regimes, some of the underlying concepts, approaches and definitions embedded in NRD are also mirrored in the text of the ELD. The book includes a comparison of similarities and differences as well as synergies in practice; hence, this book will be of interest to both US and European readers. The ELD imposes liability for significant damage to natural habitats and species protected at Community and national levels, surface and ground waters covered by the Water Framework Directive, and land. Prior to the ELD's adoption many Member States had programs in place for the restoration of soil and groundwater contamination, but none had a regime for addressing harm to unowned natural resources. This volume presents a comprehensive legal commentary on the legal issues arising under the ELD, as well as an overview of administrative, technical, and legal issues and practices in applying the ELD regimes to cases of actual or threatened environmental damage. In doing so, it discusses both substantive issues and important procedural and process-related issues. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the issues and practical solutions. In addition, emerging best practices relating to practical ELD application are identified and presented. Identifying and discussing a wide range of emerging administrative, technical, and economic practice issues arising under member state legislation transposing and implementing the ELD, this book will be a valuable resource for all those whose work is affected by the ELD.

Adaptive Environmental Management

Author: Catherine Allan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402096321
Size: 22.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Adaptive management is the recommended means for continuing ecosystem management and use of natural resources, especially in the context of ‘integrated natural resource management’. Conceptually, adaptive management is simply learning from past management actions to improve future planning and management. However, adaptive management has proved difficult to achieve in practice. With a view to facilitating better practice, this new book presents lessons learned from case studies, to provide managers with ready access to relevant information. Cases are drawn from a number of disciplinary fields, including management of protected areas, watersheds and farms, rivers, forests, biodiversity and pests. Examples from Australia, New Zealand, the USA, Canada, the UK and Europe are presented at a variety of scales, from individual farms, through regional projects, to state-wide planning. While the book is designed primarily for practitioners and policy advisors in the fields of environmental and natural resource management, it will also provide a valuable reference for students and researchers with interests in environmental, natural resource and conservation management.

Economic Valuation Of Water Resources In Agriculture

Author: R. Kerry Turner
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
ISBN: 9789251051900
Size: 32.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Agriculture is coming under more and more pressure to justify its use of the world's freshwater resources and to improve its productive and environmental performance. The allocations of raw water to agriculture (and the allocations within the agriculture sector) all need to be negotiated in a transparent way. This report reviews the large set of literature on the subject and makes the case for the adoption of a functional approach to water valuation as a basis for such negotiation.

Social Assessment In Natural Resource Management Institutions

Author: Allan Dale
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 9780643065581
Size: 55.62 MB
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This book is the first significant international attempt to outline and analyze how social assessment has been integrated within natural resource management institutions to date. In doing so, it focuses on contemporary Australian and New Zealand experiences, and relates these back to the international context. Social Assessment in Natural Resource Management Institutions provides practical guidance for a wide range of planners, managers and stakeholders striving for better integration of social issues. The lessons derived are equally relevant to national, provincial, regional and local governance structures, international agencies, corporations, and community-based non-government organizations.