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Property And Political Order In Africa

Author: Catherine Boone
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107729599
Size: 25.45 MB
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In sub-Saharan Africa, property relationships around land and access to natural resources vary across localities, districts and farming regions. These differences produce patterned variations in relationships between individuals, communities and the state. This book captures these patterns in an analysis of structure and variation in rural land tenure regimes. In most farming areas, state authority is deeply embedded in land regimes, drawing farmers, ethnic insiders and outsiders, lineages, villages and communities into direct and indirect relationships with political authorities at different levels of the state apparatus. The analysis shows how property institutions - institutions that define political authority and hierarchy around land - shape dynamics of great interest to scholars of politics, including the dynamics of land-related competition and conflict, territorial conflict, patron-client relations, electoral cleavage and mobilization, ethnic politics, rural rebellion, and the localization and 'nationalization' of political competition.

Institutions And Democracy In Africa

Author: Nic Cheeseman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108661327
Size: 14.64 MB
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Historically, African political institutions such as constitutions, legislatures and judiciaries have been seen as weak and vulnerable to manipulation, leading some to claim that the continent is 'institutionless'. However, recent developments including the consolidation of presidential term limits in a number of countries demonstrate that this depiction is no longer tenable. By drawing attention to how institutions can shape the practice of politics, this book demonstrates that electoral commissions, economic regulations and systems of land tenure are vital to our understanding of contemporary Africa. A series of cutting-edge contributions from leading scholars explain how the rules of the game shape political developments across the continent, from Kenya to Nigeria and from Benin to South Africa. In chapters that cover bureaucracies, constitutions, elections, political parties, the police and more, the authors argue that a new research agenda is required if we are to better understand the process of democratisation.

Securing Property Rights

Author: Ato Kwamena Onoma
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 54.95 MB
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Global demands for raw materials and local processes have led to increases in land values in many African countries. Why do ruling elites in African countries respond in disparate ways to similar opportunities for the accumulation of wealth and power provided by these increases in land values? Some strengthen institutions that secure property rights in land. Others undermine existing institutions that secure property rights in land. I combine the way people use land---extract benefits from land---and the extent of their power to explain divergent institutional responses to rising land values. Actors involved in productive land use tend to prefer secure property rights institutions and where they have the capacity build such institutions. Those involved in extracting value from land in unproductive ways favor insecure property rights institutions and tend to weaken property rights institutions where they have the capacity to do so. A key insight of this dissertation is that people extract benefits from resources in different ways that are facilitated by different institutional structures. We thus need to understand how they use resources in order to grasp why they chose different institutional structures in the face of similar opportunities to profit from resources. I employ a qualitative research method that combines field interviews, archival research, participant observation and reviews of secondary literatures. I examine six cases from three countries---Botswana, Ghana and Kenya---using both spatial and temporal modes of comparing national and subnational political entities. The theory of resource use laid out here advances theorizing on the emergence and transformation of property rights institutions and also provides us with a broad framework through which we can examine institutions created to govern resources beyond land, like timber, diamonds in societies beyond those studied in this work.

Delegation And Agency In International Organizations

Author: Darren G. Hawkins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139458817
Size: 31.96 MB
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Why do states delegate certain tasks and responsibilities to international organizations rather than acting unilaterally or cooperating directly? Furthermore, to what extent do states continue to control IOs once authority has been delegated? Examining a variety of different institutions including the World Trade Organization, the United Nations and the European Commission, this book explores the different methods that states employ to ensure their interests are being served, and identifies the problems involved with monitoring and managing IOs. The contributors suggest that it is not inherently more difficult to design effective delegation mechanisms at international level than at domestic level and, drawing on principal-agent theory, help explain the variations that exist in the extent to which states are willing to delegate to IOs. They argue that IOs are neither all evil nor all virtuous, but are better understood as bureaucracies that can be controlled to varying degrees by their political masters.

Politics Property And Production In The West African Sahel

Author: Tor Arve Benjaminsen
Publisher: Nordic Africa Institute
ISBN: 9789171064769
Size: 69.68 MB
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Through a number of case studies from the West African Sahel, this book links and explores natural resources management from the perspectives of politics, property and production.

The Politics Of Possession

Author: Thomas Sikor
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444322910
Size: 65.13 MB
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The Politics of Possession investigates how struggles over access to resources and political power constitute property and authority recursively. Such dynamics are integral to state formation in societies characterized by normative and legal pluralism. Includes some of the latest theoretical work on the dynamics of access and property and how they are joined to questions of power and authority Explores how access to resources is often contested and rife with conflict, particularly in post-colonial and post-socialist countries Offers a thought-provoking approach to the study of everyday processes of state formation Shows how the process of seeking authorization for property claims works to legitimize the authorizers, and the efforts undertaken by politico-legal institutions to gain legitimacy underpin and undermine various claims of access and property Contributors explore from a wide empirical compass of original research spanning Latin America, Africa, South-East Asia, and Eastern Europe