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The Properties Of Water And Their Role In Colloidal And Biological Systems

Author: Carel Jan van Oss
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080921570
Size: 53.92 MB
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This book treats the different current as well as unusual and hitherto often unstudied physico-chemical and surface-thermodynamic properties of water that govern all polar interactions occurring in it. These properties include the hyper-hydrophobicity of the water-air interface, the cluster formation of water molecules in the liquid state and the concomitant variability of the ratio of the electron-accepticity to electron-donicity of liquid water as a function of temperature, T. The increase of that ratio with T is the cause of the increase in hydration repulsion (“hydration pressure ) between polar surfaces upon heating, when they are immersed in water. The book also treats the surface properties of apolar and polar molecules, polymers, particles and cells, as well as their mutual interaction energies, when immersed in water, under the influence of the three prevailing non-covalent forces, i.e., Lewis acid-base (AB), Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) and electrical double layer (EL) interactions. The polar AB interactions, be they attractive or repulsive, typically represent up to 90% of the total interaction energies occurring in water. Thus the addition of AB energies to the LW + EL energies of the classical DLVO theory of energy vs. distance analysis makes this powerful tool (the Extended DLVO theory) applicable to the quantitative study of the stability of particle suspensions in water. The influence of AB forces on the interfacial tension between water and other condensed-phase materials is stressed and serves, inter alia, to explain, measure and calculate the driving force of the hydrophobic attraction between such materials (the “hydrophobic effect ), when immersed in water. These phenomena, which are typical for liquid water, influence all polar interactions that take place in it. All of these are treated from the viewpoint of the properties of liquid water itself, including the properties of advancing freezing fronts and the surface properties of ice at 0o C. - Explains and allows the quantitative measurement of hydrophobic attraction and hydrophilic repulsion in water - Measures the degree of cluster formation of water molecules - Discusses the influence of temperature on the cluster size of water molecules - Treats the multitudinous effects of the hyper-hydrophobicity of the water-air interface

Graphene Surfaces

Author: Karim Kakaei
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128145242
Size: 22.21 MB
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Graphene Surfaces: Particles and Catalysts focuses on the surface chemistry and modification of graphene and its derivatives from a theoretical and electrochemical point-of-view. It provides a comprehensive overview of their electronic structure, synthesis, properties and general applications in catalysis science, including their relevance in alcohols and their derivatives oxidation, oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, energy storage, corrosion protection and supercapacitors. The book also covers emerging research on graphene chemistry and its impact. Chemical engineers, materials scientists, electrochemists and engineers will find information that will answer their most pressing questions on the surface aspects of graphene and its effect on catalysis. Serves as a time-saving reference for researchers, graduated students and chemical engineers Equips the reader with catalysis knowledge for practical applications Discusses the physical and electrochemical properties of graphene Provides the most important applications of graphene in electrochemical systems Highlights both experimental and theoretical aspects of graphene

Interface Science And Composites

Author: Soo-Jin Park
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123750490
Size: 23.44 MB
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The goal of Interface Science and Composites is to facilitate the manufacture of technological materials with optimized properties on the basis of a comprehensive understanding of the molecular structure of interfaces and their resulting influence on composite materials processes. From the early development of composites of various natures, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. While there are many reference books available on composites, few deal specifically with the science and mechanics of the interface of materials and composites. Further, many recent advances in composite interfaces are scattered across the literature and are here assembled in a readily accessible form, bringing together recent developments in the field, both from the materials science and mechanics perspective, in a single convenient volume. The central theme of the book is tailoring the interface science of composites to optimize the basic physical principles rather than on the use of materials and the mechanical performance and structural integrity of composites with enhanced strength/stiffness and fracture toughness (or specific fracture resistance). It also deals mainly with interfaces in advanced composites made from high-performance fibers, such as glass, carbon, aramid, and some inorganic fibers, and matrix materials encompassing polymers, carbon, metals/alloys, and ceramics. Includes chapter on the development of a nanolevel dispersion of graphene particles in a polymer matrix Focus on tailoring the interface science of composites to optimize the basic physical principles Covers mainly interfaces in advanced composites made from high performance fibers

Theory Of Electrophoresis And Diffusiophoresis Of Highly Charged Colloidal Particles

Author: Eric Lee
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128052651
Size: 68.69 MB
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Theory of Electrophoresis and Diffusiophoresis of Highly Charged Colloidal Particles discusses the electrophoretic and diffusiophoretic motions of various colloidal entities, such as rigid particles, liquid droplets, gas bubbles, and porous particles, focusing on the motion-deterring double-layer polarization effect pertinent to highly charged particles, with the lowly charged ones serving as the limiting cases. Boundary effects such as those from a cylindrical pore, a solid plane, or an air-water interface are analyzed as well for the electrophoretic motion of the various particles considered. Dynamic electrophoresis is also explored and treated. The contents are suitable for researchers, graduate students, or senior college students with some basic background of colloid science and transport phenomena. As there is no closed-form analytical formula in general for the situation of highly charged particles, the results are presented with extensive figures and plots as well as tables under various electrokinetic situations of interest to facilitate the possible use of interested readers. Provides a reliable quantitative prediction of highly charged particles motion with easy-to-apply charts and in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms Offers an extensive treatment of direct quantitative predication for non-rigid systems, such as porous particles, liquid drops, and gels, which is especially valuable in proteins and DNA research Discusses highly charged systems with a nearby boundary of practical interests, such as a pore, a solid plane, or an air-water interface, which is of vital interest in fields such as microfluidic operations and biomedical engineering Affords special attention to the polarization effect

Colloids And Interfaces In Life Sciences And Bionanotechnology Second Edition

Author: Willem Norde
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439873038
Size: 33.30 MB
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Colloidal systems occur everywhere—in soils, seawater, foodstuff, pharmaceuticals, paints, blood, biological cells, and microorganisms. Colloids and Interfaces in Life Sciences and Bionanotechnology, Second Edition, gives a concise treatment of physicochemical principles determining interrelated colloidal and interfacial phenomena. New in the Second Edition: New topics, including phase separations in polymer systems, electrokinetics of charged permeable surface coatings, and polymer brush coatings to control adsorption and adhesion of particles Emphasis on inter-particle interactions and surface phenomena in (bio)nanotechnology Full solutions to over 100 updated and additional exercises are presented in the Appendix Focusing on physicochemical concepts that form the basis of understanding colloidal and interfacial phenomena—rather than on experimental methods and techniques—this book is an excellent primer for students and scientists interested in colloidal and interfacial phenomena, their mutual relations and connections, and the fascinating role they play in natural and man-made systems.

Chemistry On Modified Oxide And Phosphate Surfaces

Author: Robson Fernandes de Farias
Publisher: Academic Press
Size: 32.25 MB
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This title in the authoritative Interface Science and Technology Series presents the key features and applications of modified oxide and phosphate surfaces. * Examines both basic and applied aspects * Incorporates examples from recent publications

The Role Of Colloidal Systems In Environmental Protection

Author: Monzer Fanun
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444632840
Size: 68.22 MB
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The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection describes the importance of colloids in many applications that contribute to environmental protection, including drinking water and wastewater treatment, heavy metal remediation, treatment of radioactive materials, corrosion, and energy conversion. Knowledge of the physical and chemical composition of colloids is important to understand and accurately model the relevant processes. The book familiarizes the reader with the technological features of the application of colloids in environmental protection, and provides chemical engineers, researchers, and scientists in academic and corporate communities with the latest developments in this field. Each chapter covers the whole spectrum of the relevant science, from the fundamentals to applications. Provides the applied technological features of colloids in environmental protection Gives insight into the use of bio-solid colloids as contaminant carriers Covers the natural occurrence of biosurfactants in the environment and their applications Provides information on the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications Chapters written by recognized and respected experts in the field from all over the world

Food Emulsions

Author: David Julian McClements
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420039431
Size: 18.13 MB
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Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques, Second Edition introduces the fundamentals of emulsion science and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied to better understand and control the appearance, stability, and texture of many common and important emulsion-based foods. Revised and expanded to reflect recent developments, this second edition provides the most comprehensive and contemporary discussion of the field of food emulsions currently available. It contains practical information about the formulation, preparation, and characterization of food emulsions, as well as the fundamental knowledge needed to control and improve food emulsion properties. New features include updates of all chapters, a critical assessment of the major functional ingredients used in food emulsions, and reviews of recent advances in characterizing emulsion properties.

Trends In Colloid And Interface Science Xxiii

Author: Seyda Bucak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642134602
Size: 40.35 MB
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ofblockcopolymer?lms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LarisaTsarkova InterfacialPhenomena TheStructureofDodecanamideMonolayersAdsorbedonGraphite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 TejBhinde,ThomasArnold,andStuartM. Clarke TheStructureofModelMembranesStudiedbyVibrational SumFrequencySpectroscopy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 JonathanF. D. Liljeblad,MarkW. Rutland,VincentBulone, andC. MagnusJohnson ColloidalDispersionsandColloidalStability OutstandingStabilityofPoorly-protectedPickeringEmulsions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 MathieuDestribats,SergeRavaine,Vale´rieHeroguez, FernandoLeal-Calderon,andVe´roniqueSchmitt PolymerSolution,GelsandPhaseBehaviour pH-andThermo-responsivePolymerAssembliesinAqueousSolution. . . . . . . . . . . 19 ElodieSiband,YvetteTran,andDominiqueHourdet NanostructuredMaterials Nano-sizedTiO SynthesisinTritonX-100ReverseMicelles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2 H. BanuYener,SelinS¸arkaya,andS¸erife. S¸Helvac? PercolationandJamminginRandomHeterogeneousMaterials withCompetingLengthScales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 AndriyV. Kyrylyuk,AlanWouterse,andAlbertP. Philipse FabricationofMagneticClustersandRodsUsingElectrostaticCo-assembly. . . . . . 35 M. Yan,L. Chevry,andJ. -F. Berret BiomaterialsandMedicalAspects BacterialAttachmentResponseonTitaniumSurfaceswithNanometric TopographicFeatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ViKhanhTruong,JamesWang,RimmaLapovok,YuriEstrin, FrancoisMalherbe,ChristopherBerndt, RussellCrawford,andElenaIvanova vii viii Contents COSTD43Action SynthesisofCarbideCompoundsDerivedfromColloidalOxide andCarbohydrate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 X. Deschanels,M. ElGhazzal,C. Delchet,D. Herault,V. Magnin, A. Grandjean,R. Podor,G. Cerveau, T. Zemb,andR. Corriu Poly(n-butylcyanoacrylate)SubmicronParticlesLoadedwith Cipro?oxacinforPotentialTreatmentofBacterialInfections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 GeorgiYordanov,NikolaAbrashev,andCecoDushkin Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ProgrColloidPolymSci(2010)137:1–4 DOI:10. 1007/978-3-642-13461-6_1 Con?nementEffectsontheMicrophaseSeparationand SwellingofBlockCopolymerFilms LarisaTsarkova Abstract Con?nement signi?cantly affects the main Up to now published results contain non-consistent or physicalpropertiesofsoftmaterials,inparticularsolvent– evencontradictinginformationconcerningthein?uenceof polymerinteractions. Microphaseseparationinblockcopol- thecon?nementonthesolventabsorptionanddistributionin ymer?lmsisknowntobesensitivetothechangesinthe a swollen ?lm. In particular, the correlation between the system parameters and experimental conditions. Here we absolutesolventup-takeandthe?lmthickness,aswellas presentrecentstudiesonthesolvent-assistedself-assembly theeffectofthesubstrateinteractionsonthesolventconc- of block copolymers, and their swelling behavior under trationpro?lethroughthe?lmremainunclear.

Foam And Foam Films

Author: D. Exerowa
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531809
Size: 13.43 MB
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The main physicochemical aspects of foam and foam films such as preparation, structure, properties, are considered, giving a special emphasis on foam stability. It is shown that the foam and foam films are an efficient object in the study of various surface phenomena and in establishing regularities common for different interfaces, in particular, water/oil interface. The techniques and results on foam films have an independent meaning and involve the latest achievement in this field, with a focus on authors' results. The book has an expressed monographic character. It reveals joint ideas, i.e. the quantitative approach in treating foams is based on foam film behaviour and the techniques for controlling the foam liquid content, developed by the authors. A major contribution represents the independent consideration of formation and stability of foam films in theoretical and experimental aspects. No monograph published so far reveals these topics in the mentioned manner. Data and information about foams, physicochemical characterization of surfactants, phospholipids and polymers can also be found. Furthermore, the book provides information about: techniques involved in the study of foam films and foam structure and properties; foam drainage; processes of destruction in gravitational and centrifugal fields; reasons for stability of films and their role in the processes running in the foam; mechanical, rheological, optical, thermophysical, electrical properties; foam destruction upon addition of antifoams (mechanism of destruction, techniques, application); scientific principles of controlling foam properties and their application in foam separation and concentration; enhanced oil recovery; thermodynamic and non-equilibrium properties of foam films, stabilized by surfactants, phospholipids and polymers; techniques for the study of surface forces; formation and stability of foam films; black films, including bilayers; new theories of stability of amphiphile bilayer; experiments involved in this stability; application in biology and medicine.